Nathan Light © 1998-2003
|| Sözni köngüldä pishurmighächä tilghaylatma,
Här nikim, köngüldä barni tilgha yüklimä. — Ali Shir Nava’i
Until you have ripened words in the heart, don’t speak them,
Don’t just bring to the tongue whatever there is in the heart.
This collection of books and journals forms the core of material for my research into the recent definition of the canon of Uyghur literature. Recent Uyghur scholarship and publications in China have begun to construct a unified literary history for the Uyghur ethnic group out of the long and diverse tradition of Turkic literature. The motivations and methods of this work offer insight into how literary works become identity symbols for social groups.
Since 1980 in China, in the context of political liberalization following the excesses of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, there has been an unprecedented growth in the study and publication of the literature of the Uyghurs of Xinjiang (also known as Eastern or Chinese Turkestan). The ethnic group known as Turki or Eastern Turki before the 1920s and as Uyghur (also Uighur or Uygur) since then, has never before under Chinese rule been given the opportunity to publish and appreciate a literature it could identify as reflecting its national identity. Since 1980, literature that had previously only circulated in manuscript form has been collected, edited and published on a large scale, and strong nationalist sentiments have grown around this material, which has been embraced as a coherent tradition embodying Uyghur culture, values and identity.
The works in my collection represent the results of research by most of the important scholars of Uyghur literature now working in China, as well as several from the Soviet Union. The breadth of the Uyghur literary tradition, its rapid wholesale conversion into print, and the complex ideological concerns governing which works and interpretations have become widely accepted, make it distinctive among world literary traditions. The materials that I have collected reveal a process of creating a tradition from disparate sources, in which writings that have been widely dispersed in time, space, and cultural context, are being brought together and presented as a coherent whole that stands for and helps shape national cultural identity.
In Chapters 2-6 of my dissertation, I discuss many of these works and the ways they have been used by Uyghurs thinking about their cultural identity.
The following list of works contains primary materials in Turkic, and background materials in Chinese, Russian, and English.
I cite the full name of the Shinjang Uygur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millät Qädimki Kitablarini Yighish, Rätläsh, Näshrigä Täyyarlash Ishkhanisi [The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Office for Collection, Edition, and Preparation for Publication of Minority Nationality Ancient Books] not only because it underlines the collective, official and bureaucratic nature of these publishing endeavors, but also for the variations that indicate a refreshing lack of concern for
Chen Yanqi, Sa Suo. Xiyu yanjiu shumu. Urumqi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1990.Classified bibliography of 6734 Chinese, European, Russian and Japanese books on Central Asia and Xinjiang (known in Chinese as Western Regions).
Liu Ge, Huang Chengyang. Xiyu shidi lunwen cailiao suoyin. Urumqi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1988.Classified bibliography of 8032 articles in Chinese about history, minorities, economy, culture, literature, language, geography and archeology of the Western Regions.
MANUSCRIPT CATALOGS: TURKIC
Dmitrieva, L. V., et al. Opisanie tiurkskikh rukopisei Instituta Narodov Azii. Vols. I – III. Moscow: Nauka, 1965-1980.Description of Turkic manuscripts collected in Central Asia, many of which contain works that also circulated in Eastern Turkestan.
Muginov, Abdulladzhan Muginovich. Opisanie uigurskikh rukopisei Instituta Narodov Azii. Moscow: 1962.One of the first attempts to classify a certain group of traditional manuscripts as “Uyghur” based on linguistic features, and time and place of composition, rather than on their popularity among Uyghur readers.
Sawut, Torsunmuhämmät. Uyghur ädäbiyati tarikhi materiyallar katalogi. Ürümchi: Shinjang Dashö Därslik Bölümi, 1991. Publisher indicated on cover as: Shinjang Dashö Til – Ädäbiyat Fakulteti. 388 page oliograph typescript.Bibliography listing 3541 books and articles about Uyghur literary history, organized by period and subject. More valuable is the list of 665 manuscript titles held in eight collections in Ürümchi. (This book is only available at the Textbook Office of Xinjiang University. It cannot be mailed from the country because it has no publication registration number.)
Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millät Qädimki Äsärlirini Toplash, Rätläsh, Näshir Qilishni Pilanlash Rähbärlik Guruppa Ishkhanisi. Uyghur, Özbek, Tatar Qädimki äsärlär tizimliki. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988.Despite the title, this catalogue briefly describes approximately 1500 Turkic, Persian and Arabic manuscripts and nineteenth century lithographs held in the Xinjiang Library in Ürümchi.
COLLECTIONS AND JOURNALS
Bulaq; Uyghur kilassik edibiyati mejmua’esi [title varies]. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati. Issues 1-41 (1980-1993).The more than 10,000 pages published so far in this journal contain discussions and editions of works that are being included into the Uyghur literary canon, and many translations of works from Persian and other Turkic languages. Hence it gives an excellent view into the processes of creating the Uyghur literary tradition from works discovered in single surviving copies, and from works that have been preserved abroad, and must be brought home and disseminated to include them within the tradition. Qädimqi Uyghur yazma yadikarliqliridin tallanma. Abduqäyyum Khoja, et al., eds. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1983.Collection of excerpts in Turkic from the Orkhon tablets, Turfan manuscript finds, and Mahmud Kashghari. Shinjang Özbek ädibliri. Qadir Äkbär, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1988.This collection of poems by “Uzbek” poets is an important indication of the ways by which poets can excluded from a Uyghur ethnic identity. Several poets in this collection are popular among Uyghur singers and readers and circulated widely in manuscripts among Uyghurs, but apparently because their writings are strongly religious and even ecstatic, they are excluded from the modern Uyghur vision of proper literature. Uyghur kilassik ädäbiyatidin. Tiyipjan Eliyop, Räkhmitulla Jari, eds. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1980.
Early selection of excerpts from important Turkic or Uyghur authors from Mahmud Kashghari through Molla Bilal.
EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS OF LITERARY MANUSCRIPTS
Abdirähim Nizari. Nizari dastanliri. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1985. From a manuscript entitled Muhäbbät dastanliri which was copied in 1838, held at the Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Tarikhiy Muzäy, prepared under the direction of the Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millätlärining Qädimqi Äsärlärini Yighish, Rätläsh, vä Näshr Qilishni Pilanlash Rähbärlik Guruppisi.
Ädip Äkhmät binni Mäkhmut Yuknäki. Ätäbätulhäqayiq. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1980. Khämit Tomur, Tursun Ayub, eds. Transcription and translation. This brief thirteenth- or fourteenth-century didactic dastan is one of the first Turkic works of a strongly Islamic content to be written in Central Asia. This version is edited from Arabic script and Uyghur vertical script versions, all of which are in Turkey.
Älishir Navayi [Nava’i]. Ghäzällär. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1982. Transcription with modern translation. A selection of the ghazal poetry by the most prolific fifteenth-century Turkic poet, Mir Ali Shir Nava’i, put into modern orthography. This work seems to exclude many of the more religious writings of this poet, but nonetheless has not been reprinted and is difficult to find.
Älishir Navayi [Nava’i]. Khämsa; Farhad – Shirin. Rähmitulla Jari, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Yashlar – ösmürlär näshriyati, 1991. Transcription with modern translation. Part of a series of modern orthography printings of this poet’s longer works.
Älishir Navayi [Nava’i]. Khämsa; Läyli – Mäjnun. Teyipjan Eliyov, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Yashlar – ösmürlär näshriyati, 1991. Transcription with modern translation. Part of a series of modern orthography printings of this poet’s longer works.
Ämir Khisro Dehlivi. Chahar Därvish [The Four Dervishes]. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1981. A widely-known Persian religious narrative poem translated into Turkic by an unknown Eastern Turki writer.
Äkhmät Hojam Niyaz Oghli Qusuri. Rävzätuz zuhra. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1990. Edited by Imin Säypulla according to the plan of the Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millät Qädimki Äsärlirini Toplash, Rätläsh, Näshir Qilish Ishkhanisi. A mystical dastan by an eighteenth-century Sufi poet from the region of Pichan. One of the many works of which manuscripts are not known outside Xinjiang.
Babur, Zahir ad-Din Muhammad. Traktat ob `Aruze; faksimile rukopisi; Izdanie teksta, vstupitel’naia stat’ia i ukazateli. I. V. Stebleva, ed. Moscow: Nauka, 1972. The writings of the famous founder of the Moghul Empire in India on the application of the Persian poetic principles known as `aruz within Turkic poetry.
Gada’i. The Divan of Gada’i. Janos Eckmann, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications. Uralic and Altaic Series, volume 113. 1971. Fascimile, transcription, and glossary. Central Asian Turkic poet of the fifteenth century, whose writings are scarce and not usually considered to be part of the Uyghur tradition. From a linguistic and thematic point of view there is no reason his works should not be included, so it will be interesting to see how he will be treated as he becomes known in Xinjiang.
Gheribi. Bähramgor. Mämitimin Yüsüp, ed. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1989. Original version of this dastan composed by Nizami Gänjivi in Persian, rewritten by Khisrav Dehlävi, and then a Turkic version written by Nava’i. The present version written in the mid-nineteenth century by the Kashgar poet Gheribi. Edited from a manuscript which was copied in 1838, now held at the Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millät Qädimki Kitablarini Yighish, Rätläsh, Näshrigä Täyyarlash Ishkhanisi.
Ibrahim Mäshhuri. Divan Mäshhuri. Kashgar: 1985. Author is late nineteenth-century Sufi poet. Work contains many references to daily life in the cities of Kashgar and Khotan.
Mähmut Qäshqäri. Turki Tillar Divani. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1981-84. Three volumes. The famous eleventh century Turkic-Arabic dictionary edited with modern Uyghur translations of the Arabic definitions.
Muhämmäd Sidiq Zälili. Zälili divani. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1985. Edited by Imin Tursun under the direction of the Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millätlärning Qädimqi Äsärlirini Yighish, Rätläsh, Näshr Qilishni Pilanlash Rähbärlik Guruppisi. The Divan, or collected poems, of one of the most prolific poets of eighteenth-century Eastern Turkestan. Edited from several manuscripts.
Muhämmät Imin Khirqiti. Muhäbbätnamä vä Mehnätkamä (lirik dastan). R. Jari, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1982. Two dastan narrative poems written by a native of Kashghar in the nineteenth century. Qadimki Uyghur yeziqdiki Maytri Simit. Israpil Yüsüp, et al., eds. Urumqi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1987. Facsimile, transcription and translation into modern Uyghur and Chinese. A Buddhist manuscript in vertical script Uyghur, estimated to be from the eighth or ninth centuries A.D.
Qidirkhan Yärkändi. Divan Qidiri ning muqäddimisi. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1986. Transcription with translation. The surviving parts of an introduction to a poet’s collected works, describing poetic performances in the sixteenth century under the rule of the Yarkand Khanate.
Rabghuzi [Nasir ud-din ibn Burhan ud-din ar-Rabghuzi]. Qissäsul Änbiya. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. Oliograph typescript. Legends of the Muslim saints, in a famous Turkic version from the fourteenth century, widely circulated in manuscript throughout Central Asia. This non- scholarly publication is important because it indicates that traditional texts that do not get published as official parts of the Uyghur canon still have a popular audience because they are important to Uyghur religious identity. Transliteration into modern Uyghur modified Arabic script of a version lithographed in Tashkent in 1895.
Yusuf Khass Hajib. Wisdom of Royal Glory (Kutadgu Bilig); A Turko-Islamic Mirror for Princes. Robert Dankoff, translation and notes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983. English translation of one of the most important early Turkic literary works.
Yusuf Khas Hajib. Qutadghu bilik. [Colophon has: Qutadghu bilik ning Pärghanä nuskhisi.] Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1985. Facsimile edition of the Arabic script Tashkent manuscript of this philosophical guide for rulers by an eleventh-century Turk whom Uyghurs have come to see as one of the two founders of Uyghur literature.
Yusuf Khas Hajib. Qutadghu bilik. [Colophon has: Qutadghu bilik ning Vena nuskhisi.] Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1985. Facsimile edition of the Vienna manuscript in Uyghur vertical script.
Yusuf Khas Hajib. Qutadghu bilik. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1985. Parallel text: transcription and translation into Modern Uyghur.
Yusuf Khas Hajib. Qutadghu bilik; hazirki zaman Uyghur tilidiki näsriy yäshmisi. Abdushukur Turdi, Qadir Äqbär, preparers. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati: 1991. A new translation into modern Uyghur.
EDITIONS OF HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS
Ayaz Shikästä. Jahannamä. Abdushukur Turdi, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1985. Edition of historical poem written 1533.
Babur, Zähirdin Muhämmäd. Babur Namä. Khämit Tömür, trans. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1991. The autobiography of the founder of the Moghul Empire in India. Fragmenty Uigurskoi versii biografii Siuan’-Tszana. Transkriptsiia, perevod, primechaniia, kommentarii i ukazateli, L. Iu. Tugusheva. Moscow: Nauka, 1980. Text edition of a Uyghur vertical script manuscript translation of a Chinese narrative of travel to the Western Regions.
Molla Haji. Boghrakhanlar täzkirisi. Abdurehim Sabit, ed. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. Prepared from a 19th century manuscript, according to the 1987 plan of the Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millät Qädimki Äsärlirini Toplash, Rätläsh, Näshir Qilishni Pilanlash Rähbärlik Guruppisi.
Molla Mersalih Kashqäri. Chinggiznamä. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1985. Haji Nurhaji, ed. Edited from a manuscript now held at the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences, #00679. Matches exactly the manuscript described by Muginov (Opisanie, 1962, #38) as an anonymous history of Kashgar.
Molla Ismätulla binni Molla Nemätulla Mojiz. Tävarikhi musiqiyyun. Änvär Baytur, Khämit Tomur, eds. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1982. Facsimile, transcription, translation into modern Uyghur, and commentary. A thirty-nine page manuscript history of musicians, poets and singers, written in 1854. The original is now held by the Nationalities Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing.
Molla Musa Sayrami. Tarikhiy äminiyä. Muhämmät Zunun, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1991. Early twentieth-century historian whose manuscript work was first published as a lithograph by Pantusov in 1905 in Tashkent.
Molla Musa Sayrami. Tarikhi Hämidi. Änvär Baytur, ed. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1986. Edited from a 1911 autograph manuscript at the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences, under the direction of the SUAR Az Sanliq Millätlärining Qädimqi Äsärlirini Yighish, Rätläsh, vä Näshr Qilishni Pilanlash Rähbärlik Guruppisi. Pp. 27-711 are the text, 712-775 are notes. This manuscript does not seem to exist in collections outside of Xinjiang, except as a fragment in the Lund collection of Gunnar Jarring. It is an extension and elaboration of the same author’s Tarikhiy äminiyä. Qädimqi Uyghurlarning tarikhiy dastani Oghuznamä. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1980. Geng Shimin, Tursun Ayup, eds. Transcription, translation, notes. An historical epic of unknown date describing the mythical origins and history of the Oghuz tribe of Turks. Modern Uyghur scholars consider this part of the Uyghur tradition. The original manuscript is an Uyghur vertical script version in Paris.
Shah Mähmut Joras. [Churas]. Sä’idiyä Khandanliqi tarikhigha da’ir matiriyallar. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. Translated from Persian by Häbibulla Eli from the edition of Akimushkin (Moscow, 1976), introduction by Qurban Väli. Author wrote this work in Persian in the Eastern Turki city of Kashgar in the seventeenth century, describing the cultural life and history of the court and its conflicts with surrounding rulers.
Churas, Shah Mahmud ibn Mirza Fazil. Khronika; kriticheskii tekst, perevod, kommentarii, issledovanie i ukazateli. O. F. Akimushkin, ed. Moscow: Nauka, 1976. Russian scholar’s facsimile edition and translation of Churas’s historical work.
STUDIES OF LITERATURE AND LITERARY HISTORY
Abdukerim Räkhman. Folklor vä yazma ädäbiyat. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. Articles on the relations between folk narratives and written Uyghur literature.
Ärshidinov, Batur. Uyghur klassikliri ijadiyitigä dastan zanri (XIX äsirning birinchi yerimi). Almuta: Nauka, 1988. A Soviet Uyghur scholar’s work on the dastan genre of Uyghur poetry during the first half of the nineteenth century, a period of considerable popular upheaval in which the dastan in both oral and literary forms played an important role.
Kaidarov, A. T. Razvitie sovremennogo uigurskogo literaturnogo iazyk. Alma-Ata: 1969. Soviet Uyghur description of the development of Uyghur literary poetry and prose. Gives the version of the Uyghur literary tradition constructed by Uyghur scholars living in the Soviet Union.
Polat, Mähämmät. Uyghur ädibiyatida proza. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1985. A study of Uyghur literary style.
Shäripidin Ömär. Uyghurlarda kilassik ädäbiyat. Ürümchi: Shinjang Yashlar – ösmürlär näshriyati, 1986. Mäs’ul muhärriri: Qurban Barat. Articles on Uyghur classical literature.
Sheripidin Omär. Uyghur kilassik ädibiyat tarikhidin ocherik. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1981. Articles on Uyghur classical literature. This book is designated Neibu (internal circulation only), but I was able to get copies at Xinjiang University’s textbook distribution office.
Tarikhiy miras – “Qutadghu Bilik” häqqidä bayan. Vol. 3. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. Third volume in a collection of article-length studies on the Qutadghu Bilig.
Uyghur pälsäpä tarikhighä a’it mäsililär. Islamjan Sherip, Abdukerim Rakhman, eds. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1981. Articles about the philosophical tradition contained within Uyghur literature.
Uyghur ädäbiyati tarikhi; aliy mäktäplär üchün därslik. Vol. 3. [Ürümchi]: Shinjang Ma’arip Näshriyati, 1992 – . Part of a four volume history of Uyghur literature, more comprehensive than previous efforts. This is the third volume, covering the period 1650-1920. The series came out beginning with volume four and working backwards.
Vahtijan Ghochur and Äsqär Husäyin. 1987. Uyghur klassik ädibiyati tezisiliri. Beijing. The most authoritative and comprehensive history of Uyghur literature before the Uyghur ädäbiyati tarikhi; aliy mäktäplär üchün därslik began appearing.
Yüsüpjan Äli Islami. Qutadghu Bilik vä qanun. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1993. A study of the relations between the Qutadghu Bilig treatise on government, and legal principles.