MAKING OF THE SINO-SOVIET ALLIANCE, 1945-1950

MAKING OF THE SINO-SOVIET ALLIANCE, 1945-1950

This is a collection of primary source documents focusing on the difficult road to the establishment of the alliance between the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union.

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  • JUNE 15, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, writing under the pseudonym “Fyodor Kuznetsov,” who was Stalin’s Chief of the GRU, tells “Terebin,” actually Soviet doctor and operative in Yan’an Andrei Orlov, to arrange a secret meeting in Moscow with Mao Zedong.

  • JULY 01, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, using the name of Chief of the GRU, Fyodor Kuznetsov, tells Terebin, actually Soviet operative in Yan’an Andrei Orlov, to delay Mao’s secret visit to Moscow.

  • DECEMBER 16, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, using the name of Fyodor Kuznetsov, Chief of the GRU, officially invites Mao Zedong to Moscow. Stalin does so through Andrei Orlov, acting under the name “Terebin.”

  • DECEMBER 17, 1947

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) returns Kuznetsov’s (Stalin) cable concerning a visit to Moscow by Mao. Terebin gives Mao’s response to the invitation and tells of a discussion that took place between himself and Mao after Stalin’s message was relayed.

  • 1948

    Soviet Telegram, Regarding Operation Plan from the Chief of Staff of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Zhu De

    Telegram noting that a certain plan by General Zhu De for October has been received. Estimates the military support that it will require. Brian Murray questions the validity of the document in CWIHP Working Paper No. 12, where the document is published.

  • APRIL 20, 1948

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin responds to two letters from Mao, via Terebin (Andrei Orlov). In the cable, Stalin gives advice to Mao on what to do with opposing parties once the Chinese revolution is complete and whether or not Mao should include the liberal bourgeosie in China’s central government.

  • APRIL 22, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin, Plans for Mao’s Visit to Moscow

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) tells Stalin of Mao’s plans for arriving in Moscow and asks whether he, Terebin, should join Mao on the journey.

  • APRIL 26, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao tells Filippov (Stalin) about the move of the Central Committee to a more rural area in China. Mao also discusses his plans for his trip to Moscow.

  • APRIL 29, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong

    Stalin agrees with the plans Mao discusses in a previous cable.

  • MAY 10, 1948

    Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Mao Zedong

    Filippov (Stalin) suggests that, because of possible dangers, Mao delay his trip to Moscow even further.

  • MAY 10, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao says that his poor health requires him to delay his trip further.

  • MAY 22, 1948

    Soviet Military Order from Foreign Operations Section Chief to Commander of East-Asian Operational Section Managarov

    Soviet military message ordering its recipient to ascertain the needs of the People’s Liberation Army, so that the Soviet Union can meet them. The message also contains affirmations of Soviet support for the Communist forces in China, and promises of massive aid in the future.

  • JUNE 20, 1948

    Memorandum of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador to China, N. V. Roshchin with the President of the Chinese Republic Jiang Jieshi [Chiang Kai-shek] on 2 June 1948

    Report from Soviet Ambassador to China Roshchin on a conversation he had with Jiang Jieshi. The two discuss Japan; Jieshi remains vague on his opinions of the handling of the Japanese situation, but admits that the American approach has some flaws. Roshchin concludes that the Chinese should be watched with respect to Japan.

  • JULY 04, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao states to Stalin that his health is no longer a problem and that he, Mao, may now go to Moscow. Mao discusses the best means for doing so.

  • JULY 06, 1948

    Soviet Military Order from Operations Chief, Section Chief Lieutenant General Filyashev/Filyashkii to Commander of East-Asian Operational Section General Lieutenant Managarov

    Soviet military order informing the Chief of East-Asian Operational Section General Lieutenant Managarov of the arrival of a Lieutenant General Fedenko, who will take over operational command. It orders Managarov to continue to attend to supply line matters, and attend to the needs of the People’s Liberation Army eagerly.

  • JULY 14, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin asks Mao, through Terebin (Andrei Orlov), to visit Moscow in November so Mao will be able to see all of the important Soviet leaders.

  • JULY 14, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin

    Terebin discusses briefly Mao’s reaction to Stalin’s telegram, dated July 14, 1948, and gives Mao’s response.

  • JULY 17, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) gives Kuznetsov (Stalin) his, Terebin’s, interpretation of Mao’s reaction to Stalin’s cable asking that Mao’s visit be delayed several months.

  • JULY 28, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) discusses Mao’s plans for conversation when the trip to Moscow is made. Terebin lists seven questions of Mao’s that Mao will bring up upon arriving in the USSR.

  • SEPTEMBER 28, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao agrees to delay his visit to the USSR until November, but asks that, Stalin and the Cenral Committee give advice about several questions Mao had stated previously.

  • OCTOBER 17, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin tells Mao, through Terebin (Andrei Orlov), that he, Stalin, received Mao’s letter and that the Soviet leaders would answer Mao’s questions upon his arrival in Moscow.

  • OCTOBER 17, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin

    Mao asks, through Terebin, whether or not he, Mao, will be picked up by a Soviet plane when he heads to Moscow. Terebin recounts the detailed planning that Mao has done for the trip.

  • OCTOBER 21, 1948

    Cable, Stalin [via Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Kuznetsov (Stalin) tells Terebin (Andrei Orlov) that two planes will pick up Mao at an undetermined time to take him to Moscow.

  • NOVEMBER 21, 1948

    Cable, Mao to Stalin

    Mao asks to delay his trip to Moscow until December.

  • NOVEMBER 22, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong

    Stalin agrees that Mao should postpone his visit to Moscow for a month.

  • DECEMBER 30, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao details to Stalin the recent military operations the Communists have undertaken against the Guomindang army. The first is in the area of Suizhou, Huaiying, and the Huaihe River. The second is in Du Yuming. Mao states that once these operations are complete, he will depart for Moscow. Mao discusses future tactics against the Guomindang.

  • JANUARY 06, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, through Terebin (Andrei Orlov), acknowledges that creating a democratic coalition government in China will take a significant amount of time. Stalin states, however, that it would be best if the final stages of the process take place sooner than the summer, the time Mao planned to have the government established.

  • JANUARY 08, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao thanks Stalin for sending over Ivan Kovalev to help with economic struggles in China. Mao asks for materials with which China may build railroads.

  • JANUARY 09, 1949

    Cable, Mao to Stalin

    Mao announces that he is ready to visit Moscow.

  • JANUARY 10, 1949

    Cable, Mao to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao responds to Stalin’s telegram from 6 January 1949. Mao states that any government the GMD may create will be of no influence, that the GMD army is diminished, and that soon the People’s Liberation Army will be able to march south and capture several important provinces.

  • JANUARY 10, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Stalin informs Mao that they received a note from the Chinese Nationalist government in Nanjing proposing that the Soviet government act as a mediator between the Nanjing government and the Chinese Communist Party in the termination of the ongoing civil war.

  • JANUARY 11, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Stalin further explains his strategy in dealing with the peace proposal received from the Chinese Nationalist Government in Nanjing.

  • JANUARY 13, 1949

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin states that Mao is firmly against mediation with the GMD and the USSR taking part in mediation talks with the GMD. Terebin states that if Mao cannot make it to Moscow by the end of January, he will most likely not go at all.

  • JANUARY 13, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Mao responds to Stalin’s telegrams regarding the Soviet response to the proposal for negotiations from the Chinese Nationalist government in Nanjing.

  • JANUARY 14, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Stalin responds to Mao’s 11 January telegram rejecting the peace proposal from the Chinese Nationalist Goverment in Nanjing.

  • JANUARY 15, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

  • JANUARY 17, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao states that he must delay his visit to Moscow once again. He gives an alternative, which is to have a member of the Politburo come to visit China instead.

  • JANUARY 18, 1949

    The Official Statement on the Soviet Government’s Answer to the Note by the Nanjing Government (Izyestia)

    The Soviet government rejects the proposal from the Chinese Nationalist Government in Nanjing for the Soviet Union to act as mediator in peace negotiations with the Chinese Communist Party.

  • JANUARY 30, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Mao discusses the military situation in China, which he states is heavily in the favor of the CCP. Mao discusses the plans for finishing off the Guomindang forces, which are to be delayed a couple months. Mao discusses China’s standing compared to Russia’s. Mao discusses his own standing among the Soviet leaders.

  • JANUARY 31, 1949

    Notes by Anastas Mikoyan ahead of Meetings with Mao Zedong

    Notes taken by Minister of Foreign Trade Anastas Mikoyan during a meeting with Mao Zedong in Beijing. They discuss relations with the United States and other Western powers and the nationalization of foreign-owned factories in China. Mikoyan also gave advice on developing the new Communist government in China. Noteably, Mikoyan wrote that “the path of the regime of the people’s democracies, or the path of the Russian Soviet revolution, is not quite appropriate for China. China has its own path of development.”

  • JANUARY 31, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Mao discusses the formation of a coalition government and when best to form the government. Mao discusses his strategies against Bai Chongxi and the strength of the CCP forces. Mao also discusses the representative office of the VKP(b) CC with the CCP CC, running the military districts, Guomindang naval forces, the conditions of workers, the cadres, professional unions, working youth and women, talks with the Guomindang government, foreign trade, and the foreign policy of the CCP.

  • MARCH, 1949

    List of Products Brought Back

    Anastas Mikoyan’s list of products he brought back to the Soviet Union following his trip to Xibaipo, China, in January-February 1949.

  • FEBRUARY, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Cable from Stalin to Mikoyan giving answers to questions raised by Mao Zedong. Stalin advises not to rush in creating a government in China before comprehensively “clearing the liberated area from hostile elements.” Stalin explains that the USSR sent an agent to Canton for intelligence-gathering, and says that the Americans and English are sending ambassadors to CCP areas to function as spies.

  • FEBRUARY 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas and Zhou Enlai discuss Muslims in China, Chinese policy in inner Mongolia, the Guomindang navy, Guomindang forces, characteristics of Guomindang leaders, PLA arms, PLA military requests, PLA intelligence, and the organization of the war ministry. (Evening)

  • FEBRUARY 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai discuss Chinese Communist Party contacts with the US, recognition of the coalition government, and the Chinese attitude toward foreign property.

  • FEBRUARY 03, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, asking Mikoyan to bring Mao’s attention to the issue of Nanjing’ists taking China’s state-owned gold south from evacuated cities and areas in China. Stalin recommends that Mao make the return of this gold a condition for holding talks with the Nanjing’ists.

  • FEBRUARY 03, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Cable from Stalin to Mikoyan, sent with the intent to be passed on to Mao Zedong. Stalin expresses pleasure with the Chinese control of China’s peasantry and students, but expresses disappointment that the CCP does not control the majority of the working class. Stalin advises that China turn its big cities into bases for communism, and then gives more specific advice for gaining a majority among the working class. Stalin then responds to Mao’s request for weapons, explaining that the USSR doesn’t have anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapons of foreign make, but can send Russian-made weapons.

  • FEBRUARY 03, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong converse about the mediation talks between the CCP and the Guomindang, Yugoslavia, coordination between the communist parties of the Asian countries, and the history of the CCP.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Anastas Mikoyan to Joseph Stalin

    Cable from Mikoyan to Stalin, saying that Mao and the members of the Chinese Politburo were pleased with the content of previous telegrams sent by Stalin.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, responding to Mikoyan’s report that an American named Rittenberg is stationed with the Chinese Communist party as a spy. Stalin recommends an arrest of Rittenberg immediately, so as “to expsoe the network of American agents” operating in China. Stalin then notes that another American, writer Anna-Louise Strong, is also an American spy.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, asking Mikoyan to recount a four-point cable sent earlier to Mao Zedong. Stalin has not heard an answer, and demands an immediate one.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Anastas Mikoyan to Joseph Stalin

    Cable sent from Mikoyan to Stalin, summarizing a discussion between Mikoyan and Mao. In that conversation, Mikoyan tells Mao that once the USSR opposed foreign mediation between the Guomindang and CCP, England, America and France changed their positions from supporting mediation to refuting mediation. Mikoyan then draws to Stalin’s attention that Zhou Enlai noticed permanent representatives of Americans, including “spies, and journalists,” among the Chinese Communist Party.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the independence of Mongolia, the independence movement in Xinjiang, the construction of a railroad in Xinjiang, CCP contacts with the VKP(b), the candidate for Chinese ambassador to the USSR, aid from the USSR to China, CCP negotiations with the Guomindang, the preparatory commisssion for convening the PCM, the character of future rule in China, Chinese treaties with foreign powers, and the Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • FEBRUARY 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the situation within the CCP, the workers’ question, the military situation an the CCP’s tasks, and Rittenberg and Ma Haide. (Evening)

  • FEBRUARY 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the role of foreign capital in China, Chinese intelligentsia, the role of criticism and self-criticism in the CCP, CCP tasks in the army, the level of China’s industrial development, the Chinese attitude toward foreign property, and the road and character of the Chinese revolution. (Day)

  • FEBRUARY 06, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss Outer Mongolia, the Sino-Soviet treaty, the situation of the national minorities in China, the economic policy of the CCP, the structure of state power, the head of the Chinese government, the “new situation” and the cadres, the Soviet loan to China, the CCP CC plans for February-March, and the youth movement.

  • APRIL 26, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Kovalev

    Stalin gives advice to Mao (via Kovalev) on how to treat the Chinese bourgeoisie.

  • MAY 26, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Kovalev]

    Stalin gives to Mao (via Kovalev) his, Stalin’s, stance on the economic situation in China, and how the Chinese are handling it (the creation of an administrative economic center in China). Stalin also discusses Sino-Soviet relations, and the state of the PLA and how best to use PLA forces.

  • JUNE 14, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong [via Kovalev] to Stalin

    Mao (via Kovalev) responds to Stalin’s earlier cable and asks advice on several questions, including: the creation of a government in China, military tactics, the supplying of troops, the state of the civil war, and how to show the friendship between the USSR and China to other countries.

  • JUNE 18, 1949

    Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Mao Zedong [via Kovalev]

    Stalin discusses the creation of a government in China, Chinese military plans, and the acquisition of oil in China.

  • JUNE 27, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Stalin and CCP Delegation

    Stalin and the CCP delegation discuss the Soviet loan to China, the specialist the Soviets are to send to China, the occupation of Xinjiang, and the Chinese fleet.

  • JULY 06, 1949

    Report, Kovalev to Stalin

    Kovalev relays several requests made by Liu Shaoqi, Gao Gang, and Wang Jiaxiang. The requests include advice on running a communist government, that Soviet professors be sent to China, advice on how to manage Manchuria, and if China could receive a Czechoslovak trade delegation.

  • JULY 18, 1949

    Cable, Liu Shaoqi to Mao Zedong

    A committee to write up a preliminary draft for a loan from the USSR to China is created. Stalin meets with a delegation of the CCP and answers several of their questions, including: the CCP’s policy towards the Chinese national bourgeoisie, the matter of people’s democratic dictatorship, Chinese foreign policy issues, Sino-Soviet relations, Xinjiang, Dalian, a Chinese University in Moscow, a railway from outer Mongolia to Zhangjiakou, and a naval school. Stalin and the CCP delegation also discussed the possibility of a war breaking out between the USSR and the US.

  • JULY 27, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Liu Shaoqi and Stalin

    Liu Shaoqi and Stalin (among others) discuss the state of the Chinese civil war

  • NOVEMBER 07, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation of Soviet Ambassador Roshchin with Deputy Chairman Zhu De on 24 October 1949

    Conversation between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Commander of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Zhu De. Zhu De notes that PLA progress through Southern China is meeting little resistance, although it is slowed by the lack of available gasoline. De puts forth his opinion that Chinese success in Xinjiang will depend on mechanized agricultural aid from the Soviets.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin, Memorandum of Conversation with Prime Minister Zhou Enlai on 15 November 1949

    Conversation between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Chinese Premier Enlai. Zhou Enlai puts forth some future military plans of the PLA. Specifically, the plans to enter Tibet following liberation in Xinjiang and Sichuan, and to attack Hainan are discussed. He adds that the losses incurred in the Battle of Shantou will inform the eventual attack on Formosa.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin, Memorandum of Conversation with Chairman Mao Zedong on 20 October 1949

    Record of a dinner between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Mao Zedong. Roshchin notes that the mood of dinner is very friendly, with each man toasting the other and the other’s country. The two also discuss China’s desire to establish diplomatic relations with Albania.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin, Memorandum of Conversation with Prime Minister Zhou Enlai on 10 November 1949

    Conversation between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Zhou Enlai speaks on behalf of Mao Zedong, expressing the Chairman’s desire to make a visit to Moscow.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin: Memorandum of Conversation with Chairman Mao Zedong on 16 October 1949

    Soviet Ambassador to China Roshchin records his conversation with Chairman Mao Zedong where he congratulates Mao on the successes of the People’s Liberation Army. Mao assures Roshchin that China will not take up diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia, and that it will officially recognize the GDR once the Soviet Union does.

  • DECEMBER 16, 1949

    Record of Conversation between I.V. Stalin and Chairman of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China Mao Zedong on 16 December 1949

    First meeting between Mao and Stalin. The two discuss war and peace, as well as the question of the new treaty between China and the USSR. Stalin voices himself against signing a new treaty, citing the Yalta agreement. Mao promises to reconsider his position. Mao says he is in favor of keeping Soviet troops in Port Arthur. Stalin promises not to “run away” from China. Mao requests a credit of 300 million dollars, as well as the Soviet aid in liberating Taiwan. Stalin warns Mao not to give the Americans a pretext to intervene in China. Mao says that several countries are interested in establishing diplomatic relations with China but that China should wait before doing so. Stalin agrees with this strategy.

  • DECEMBER 20, 1949

    Kovalev Report to Stalin on a Conversation with Mao

    Kovalev reported to Stalin on his converation with Mao Zedong. He said Mao intended to suggest two options for Stalin’s consideration. The first one is to discuss Soviet-China treaty and other aggrements and then sign them. The second option is to discuss wiouthout formalizing these into agreeements.

  • DECEMBER 22, 1949

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to the Central Committee of the CCP

    Mao Zedong offers instructions on the impending trade agreement with the Soviet Union.

  • DECEMBER 24, 1949

    Report, Kovalev to Stalin

    Kovalev discusses seceral questions on the policy and pratice of the CCP CC. Topics include: data on the economic situation in the country, the Chinese working class, the Chinese peasantry and the land reform, the CCP, the Chinese press, the Chinese state apparatus, the Chinese army, the Chinese intelligentsia, the Chinese attitude toward the national bourgeoisie, the Chinese attitude toward foreign capital, the class struggle in China, and Chinese foreign policy.

  • JANUARY 02, 1950

    Cable, Mao Zedong to the Central Committee of the CCP

    Mao Zedong informs the Central Committee of “an important breakthrough” in his talks with Stalin, and asks that Zhou Enlai immediately come to Moscow to conclude a new Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • JANUARY 05, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to CCP Central Committee

    Mao Zedong urges the Central Committee to ensure the secrecy of the Sino-Soviet negotiations for a new treaty.

  • JANUARY 07, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai and CCP CC

    Mao Zedong updates Zhou Enlai on the Sino-Soviet negotiations and Sino-Soviet cooperation at the United Nations.

  • JANUARY 13, 1950

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Liu Shaoqi

    Mao Zedong gives instructions on Sino-Soviet military cooperation and makes personnel appointments to the Chinese armed forces.

  • JANUARY 22, 1950

    Record of Talks between I.V. Stalin and Chairman of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China Mao Zedong

    Conversation between Stalin and Mao concerning a proposed treaty of friendship and alliance between the USSR and China. Discussion includes: the prospects of future Japanese aggression, the Chinese-Eastern Railway (Mao and Stalin disagree on who should run its administration), the Port Arthur agreements (including the question of the port of Dalny), and economic cooperation. The economic cooperation focuses on a Soviet credit program for economic development in China, as well as the question of arms shipments to China. There is also discussion of Tibet.

  • JANUARY 25, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to Liu Shaoqi

    Mao reports that they have completed a draft of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance, as well as an agreement on Lushun, Dalian, and the Chinese Chanchun Railway.

  • JANUARY 31, 1950

    Memorandum of Conversation, Charge d’Affaires of the Soviet Embassy with Chinese Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai on 9 December 1949

    Description of a discussion between the Soviet Charge d’Affaires in the PRC and Zhou Enlai, covering Mao Zedong’s trip to Moscow and recognition of the PRC by England, Burma, and India.

    *****

     

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