A Death Sentence For a Life of Service

written by Amy Anderson

Note: This article written by Amy Anderson is based on interviews with Tashpolat Tiyip’s friends, students and relatives. Their identities cannot be revealed due to obvious reasons.

Sometime after he disappeared in 2017,  Tashpolat Tiyip, the president of Xinjiang University, was sentenced to death in a secret trial.  The Chinese state has provided no justification for this horrifying violation of human rights. Like hundreds of other Uyghur intellectuals, it has simply taken his life away. Drawing on interviews with Tiyip’s students and relatives, this article tells the story of his life and demonstrates the grotesque absurdity of the Chinese totalitarian state. A man who has dedicated his life to furthering the vision of the state and his people appears to have been sentenced to death for this effort.

A Geographer with a Dream

Tashpolat Tiyip, born in 1958, came of age during the infamous Cultural Revolution during his teenage years. Upon his graduation from high school in 1975, he was asked to join the “Down to the Countryside Movement” and worked as a Red October tractor driver in the fields of Nilka County, in Ili Prefecture.  After six months of saving his salary he was able to buy an Uyghur-Chinese dictionary. According to one of his relatives, every evening he would memorize at least 50 new Chinese words, which he would repeat over and over again while he was driving the tractor in the field from dawn to dusk.  His favorite thing to do after work was to sit beside the Ili River. From a young age he dreamed of becoming a geographer and exploring the physical landscape of the Uyghur homeland. He had faith in a better future as he studied Chinese and enjoyed the sunset over the Heavenly Mountains.

In 1977, the Chinese state declared that the human catastrophe of the past 10 years was the fault of the “Gang of Four” and the revolution was now over. Many of the youth returned from the villages to their home cities and were given an opportunity to take the national college entrance exam. Tiyip loved the landscape of the Uyghur homeland: the mountains, grasslands, rivers and streams. According to his students, he thought often about the land he had cultivated. He deeply appreciated the dry, bare, sandy, salty environment that generations of indigenous people had cultivated through hard work and, through this, built deep roots. The land was filled with stone, mountains and heat. It was the land where Uyghur ancestors had lived. The farmers he had met had dedicated their whole lives to make a living from it.

As one of his relatives said, recounting the story of his life, Tiyip was thrilled to take the first national college entrance exam after the ten years of chaos, and received an offer to study Sports Education. Although his family and friends encouraged him to pursue this career as he was a talented athlete, he knew he wanted to be a geographer and help his community by learning from scientific advances in water management and agronomy. He spent the next year studying even harder and through this became fluent in Chinese.  In 1978 he passed the exam with flying colors and was able to find a place in his dream major in the Geography Department at Xinjiang University.

Tashpolat Tiyip guiding fieldwork in Qaghaliq County (Source)

Saving River Ecology and Improving Soil Fertility

Following his graduation in 1983, Tiyip started his teaching career at his alma mater, the Department of Geography at Xinjiang University. He was deeply  engaged in his research, and began experimenting with the soil in his own front yard. Every summer and winter break he went to do fieldwork throughout the Uyghur homeland, something he continued for 35 years. His goal was to understand and maintain the river ecology and soil by applying remote sensor technology and other systems. In order to formally pursue this passion, he enrolled in a graduate program at the Tokyo University of Science in 1988. When he left, his only daughter was just four years old. According to a friend, her picture was always in his wallet.

One of Tashpolat Tiyip’s key publications: Research in Theory and Management of Ecological Environment Regulation in Arid Areas.

As one of his relatives put it, during his time in Japan Tiyip often slept just 4 hours a day in order to focus on his studies. He was not only studying a wide range of professional subjects and conducting his experiments in order to complete Master’s and Ph.D. degrees in the shortest time possible, but also learning Japanese and English in order to gain access to a broader range of research materials. Astonishingly, he finished all of these requirements in four years and earned a Doctorate of Engineering in Applied Geography. By 1992, he became the first Uyghur to earn a Ph.D. in geography in Xinjiang. In a published interview from 2011 he said: “mountains, lakes, deserts and oasis coexist in Xinjiang. The land is abundant with oil, coal, copper and other rare metals. It is a paradise for environmental research. My entire career was contained in Xinjiang.” Continuing he said that while some of his cohort of fellow international students chose to stay in Japan, he was eager to come back, be with his family and continue his research in the land he loves.

Since 1992, he has led more than 17 national and international research projects, published 5 books and more than 200 scholarly articles. His research has primarily focused on ever-fast desertification of Xinjiang ecology, specifically the reasons for the increasing levels of salinity in the soil, the destruction of river ecology and the shrinking of water resources. His publications on a remote sensing assessment of the impact of salinization, environmental changes and human activities in the Taklimakan Desert were published in a number of different languages and received international acknowledgment. His work was particularly important in understanding the degradation of the Tarim River, Kucha River, Ebinur Lake, the essential water sources of the Tarim Basin, and community adaptation to these ecological change. Through their research Tiyip and his students attempted to bolster the sustainability of local communities who were suffering from environmental degradation.

Tashpolat Tiyip accepting an award from the president of Turkmenistan, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, for his work to promote international literature and exchange. (Source)

A Legacy of Collegial Leadership

As Tiyip rose in leadership at Xinjiang University, his support for collaboration began to stand out.  He took up the responsibilities as chair of the Geography Department soon after he came back from Japan in 1993. Given his track record of research and leadership in the Geography Department, in 1996 he was promoted to vice president of Xinjiang University a position he held for 14 years. Based on his excellent performance both in academics and administration, in 2010 he was promoted to the President and Vice Secretary of the Communist Party of Xinjiang University. Until his arbitrary detention at the Beijing airport on his way to a conference in Germany in late March 2017, he was widely praised for his contribution to the development of the university.

Tiyip built a close relationship with more than 50 universities in 20 countries, including Japan, France, TurkeyKyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. He received an honorary doctoral degree from the French Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE) in 2008, in honor of his work on the environment in arid zones using satellite remote sensing. The Chinese state media published articles praising him as a model minority leader. Articles with titles such as “From a Tractor Driver to Doctor of Paris University”, stated that his honorary degree was “not only an honor for Tashpolat Tiyip, but also for Xinjiang University.” He built even closer relationships with high-ranking universities in first-tier cities in China, such as Tsinghua University, and created fellowship programs for minority graduate students from Xinjiang at these institutions. He hoped these academic collaborations would increase the education quality of Xinjiang and contribute to it’s the development and sustainability.

Tashpolat Tiyip in Paris, during a ceremony to receive an honorary doctorate from the Sorbonne in November 2008. (Source)

Like many great leaders Tiyip is charismatic, funny, and smart. He is particularly known for his attention to detail. Many of his students that I spoke with admired how he balanced the administrative work and political duty so well, while at the same time continuing his research scholarship. His special attention to his graduate students made him one of the best advisors at the school, regardless of whether they were Han-Chinese, Uyghur, Kazakh, they worked together with a collegiality that centered on their shared love of geography. When Xinjiang officials first started the “Becoming Family” campaign, which placed mostly Han civil servants in the homes of rural Uyghur farmers, Tiyip stated  that he believed it was a good policy that would create connections between elites and villagers. According to one of his students, since he was also born and raised in a rural farming family, and he had done in-depth fieldwork throughout the years with farmer communities, he genuinely enjoyed visiting and talking to the elders. In some of his research, he collaborated with the folklorist Rahile Dawut to integrate scientific data with Uyghur traditional ecological knowledge in order to better understand the cause and solution for the desertification of ecology in the Tarim Basin.

Tashpolat Tiyip with a farmer who he met through his fieldwork in rural desert locations.

Being Labeled “Two Faced”

From the perspective of his students, Tiyip  has been a deeply caring mentor. From the perspective of his colleagues, Tiyip has been a wise leader. From the perspective of his family, he has been a devoted father and loving husband. Tiyip’s wife, his partner for 36 years, Venira, is a professor of information technology. She was also a collaborator on a number of his research projects.  From the perspective of his daughter, Tiyip’s only child, he has been and always will be her greatest hero.  According to those who are close to her, she was deeply influenced by her father’s passion for geography. She also pursued a career in the same discipline, earned a doctoral degree and became her father’s colleague. For years, their annual family vacation was fieldwork in the heart of the Taklimakan Desert, carrying sensor technology equipment, setting up their tents, building a fire, sharing knowledge and laughter.

When those that were close to him heard that he had been taken away on charges of being a “two faced” person, they were dumbfounded. The question that was on all of their minds was: “Why was he taken? Where was his ‘other’ face?”  Many people whom I interviewed for this article have known him to be a brilliant geographer, an amazing leader and loving father. One person told me that everyday he carved out half an hour from his busy schedule and took his granddaughter to the playground on the Xinjiang University campus. Many people remarked on how much he enjoyed watching his granddaughter play. He told a friend that he had missed his daughter’s precious toddler years while he was studying in Japan, and now he wanted to spend as much time as possible with his granddaughter.

Welcoming remarks at a conference on “Studies of Mazar Cultures on the Silk Road.” From left to right three prominent Uyghur intellectuals who have all been disappeared: Tashpolat Tiyip, Arslan Abdulla & Rahile Dawut. (Source Anonymous)

When I asked interviewees to speculate on Tiyip’s “other face,” no one could explain the logic behind his arbitrary arrest. Instead they repeatedly attested to his character and achievements.

I pressed them further, asking if they could think of anything that may have made him a target. After a long pause, one of his students stated: “the only thing that I can think of is that he used to begin his public statements with a brief greeting in Uyghur language, usually for less than thirty seconds, before he led school meetings in fluent Chinese. Maybe this is why (he was taken).”

As recent reporting has shown, being Uyghur and taking pride in Uyghur language and heritage itself is enough to demonstrate “disloyalty” to the Party. But still, is such “disloyalty” deserving of the death penalty? Articles that praised Tiyip’s achievements are now being systematically deleted from the internet.  His name and legacy are being erased, even from the list of presidents of Xinjiang University. Ironically, Sheng Shicai, the Guomindang leader who ruled Xinjiang from 1933-1944, who was described as one of the most evil traitors by the Communist Party, is still listed as a president of the school from 1942-1944. Yet, there is now no trace of Tashpolat Tiyip’s name.

According to a family friend, Tiyip’s  daughter was diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2018, at the age of only 34. This life-threatening illness came after her father’s indefinite incarceration and death sentence. Since extreme stress and depression can result in a weakened immune system, it is possible that her health crisis is connected to the ongoing state violence that has shattered her family, and Uyghur society more generally over the past two years.

As I was writing this article and was presented with overwhelming evidence of Tiyip’s moral character,  I could not stop thinking: in what kind of world is a life of service to one’s country and people deserving of a death sentence? Where can justice be found in such a world?



Mdp Genel Sekreteri Aktaç Atai Doğu Türkistan sürgün hükümeti tarafından KKTC temsilcisi olarak görevlendirildi.



Güncelleme : 2019-01-27 21:42:18Site 0Facebook 0Tweetle 0Google +1

Milliyetçi Demokrasi Partisi (MDP) Genel Sektreteri Aktaç ATAİ, bugün KKTC’ye gelen sembolik Doğu Türkistan Sürgün Hükümeti Başbakanı İsmail CENGİZ tarafından, Cumhurbaşkanı Chulam Osman Yagma ve Parlemento Başkanı Küresh Atahan’ın onaylarıyla Doğu Türkistan Sürgün Hükümeti KKTC sembolik temsilcisi olarak görevlendirildi.
MDP Genel Merkezinde yöneticiler ile bir araya gelen Başbakan İsmail Cengiz, parti yetkililerine Doğu Türkistan’da yaşanan insanlık dramı ile ilgili çarpıcı bilgiler verdi.
Görüşmeler sonrasında sembolik mazbatayı ATAİ’ye tebliğ eden başbakan CENGİZ, Türk dünyasının bir ferdi olarak Aktaç Atai’nin Doğu Türkistan haklı davası ile ilgili olarak 30 milyon Türk’ün sesini KKTC’de duyuracağından emin olduğunu söyledi.
Törende kendisine başbakan tarafından hediye edilen Uygur Türk’lerinin milli kıyafeti olan “çapan” ve baş giysisi “börk”  ile beyanat veren ATAİ de, bu görevlendirmeden dolayı duyduğu gurur ve onurun kelimeler ile ifade edilemeyeceğini, Türk budanının Tanrı dağlarından çıkıp tüm dünyaya yayıldığını ve hükümdar olduğunun altını çizerek, Tanrı dağı eteklerinde esaret içerisinde yaşayan Türk kardeşlerimizin hakları korumak ve seslerini duyurmak için her türlü platformda mücadele edilmesi adına herkesin üzerine düşen görevi yapması gerektiğini belirtti. 
Doğu Türkistan sembolik Sürgün Hükümeti Başbakanı İsmail CENGİZ, yanındaki heyetle birlikte perşembe gününe kadar adamızda kalacak ve birçok temaslarda bulunacak.
İsmail CENGİZ, 30 Ocak Çarşamba akşamı Lefkoşa’da düzenlenecek “Türk Dünyasının Kanayan Yarası Doğu Türkistan” başlıklı konferansta da konuşmacı olarak yer alacak.



Sürgündeki Doğu Türkistan Heyeti, Kuzey Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti 3.Cumhurbaşkanı Eroğlu tarafından resmî konutunda kabul edildi.

Fazıl Küçük ve Raif Denktaş sonrası Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın Cumhurbaşkanı olan Derviş Eroğlu; “…Doğu Türkistan’da yaşayan insanlar bizim kardeşlerimiz… Onların derdi elbette bizim derdimiz… Elimizden gelen gayreti göstereceğiz. İddia edilen baskıların hafifletilmesi noktasında girişimde bulunacağız… Sürgündeki Hükümetin insani taleplerinin karşılanması için yardımcı olacağız” dedi.

3 milyon Türk’ün zorunlu ikamete tabi tutulduğu “Toplama ve Ceza Kampı” hakkında sunum yapan Sürgündeki Başbakan Cengiz, konunun Kıbrıs Parlamentosunda görüşülmesi için girişimde bulunulması ve Sürgün Hükümetin çalışmalarına maddi ve manevi destek verilmesi talebini Cumhurbaşkanına iletti.

KKTC 3. Cumhurbaşkanı Derviş Eroğlu, İsmail Cengiz ve beraberindeki Sürgündeki Doğu Türkistan heyetini kabulünde Doğu Türkistan Türklerine aşağıdaki mesajının iletilmesi arzusunda olduğunu belirterek şunları söyledi; “—Doğu Türkistan’da yaşayan Türk kardeşlerimizin 
Bizim gibi şanslı olmadıklarından dolayı üzülüyorum. Çünkü Kıbrıs Türk’ünün hemen yanıbaşında Anavatan Türkü var. Ancak maalesef kardeş Uygur Türkleri komünist düzen altında büyük sıkıntılar yaşamaktadırlar. Yaşanan sorunları okuduğumuz kitaplardan öğreniyoruz. Başta Uygur kardeşlerimiz olmak üzere benzer durumdaki Türk halklarının daha fazla özerklik hakkına kavuşmalarını, dış dünya ile özellikle bağımsız Türk Cumhuriyetleri ile ilişkilerini, bağlantılarını geliştirerek Türklük onuru ile yaşamaları arzu ediyoruz.

Çin idaresi altında yaşarlarsa da Türk, Türk’tür. Çin vatandaşı olsalar da, onların Türk kimliğine sahip olmasını engelleyemez. Bu kardeşlerimize Türklüğünden taviz vererek “ben Çinliyim” demeye zorlayan bir siyaset doğru değildir. Türk, Türklüğünden hiç bir zaman taviz vermez, vermemesi gerekir. Çin İdaresi de insanların inançlarını, kimliklerini değiştiremeyeceğini anlar ve idaresini ona göre gevşetir. Oradaki insanların insanca hakça onuru ile yaşanmalarına olanak sağlar diye beklenti içerisinde olduğumu ifade etmek istiyorum…” dedi.

DTSH Başbakanı; 
Sürgün Hükümetin medya ve propagandadan sorumlu Başkanı Erkin Sabit ile KKTC Temsilcisi Aktaç Atai’nin eşlik ettiği ziyaretin anısına sürgün hükümetin hatıra plaketi ile milli baş giysisi “dopba” ve Türk Dünyası Takvimi’nin takdim edildiği Cumhurbaşkanı Eroğlu’na ay yıldızlı Gökbayrak teslim edildi…



Türkiye Dışişleri Bakanlığı: “Hukuksuz Uygulamalardan Kaygıları ve Uygur Hassasiyetimizi İlettik”

21 Ocak 2019

Türkiye Dışişleri Bakanı Çavuşoğlu TBMM’de Doğu Türkistan’daki toplama kamplarının varlığını ve asimilasyon uygulamalarını Çin Kararnamesine atıfta bulunarak açıkladıktan sonra, “hukuksuz uygulamalardan duyulan kaygıları ve Uygurlar konusundaki hassasiyeti” Çinli yetkililere “kuvvetli bir şekilde” ilettiklerini belirtti 

21 Ocak 2019

TBMM’de HDP milletvekili Ömer Faruk Gergerlioğlu’nun soru önergesine 18 Ocak 2018 günü yazılı bir cevap veren Türkiye Dışişleri Bakanı Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, kamuoyunun tartıştığı “Doğu Türkistan’daki toplama kampları ve hak ihlalleri” konusuna net bir açıklama getirdi. Mecliste okunan açıklamaya göre, Çin daha önce mevcudiyetini inkar ettiği “yeniden eğitim kamplarını”  9 Ekim 2018 tarihinde yürürlüğe giren bir kararname ile resmen kabul etti. “Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti Terörle Mücadele Kanunu’nun Sincan Uygur Özerk Bölgesi’nde Uygulama Usulünün Gözden Geçirilmesi Hakkında Karar” ismiyle yasaya eklenen metin, toplama kamplarının varlığını ve buralarda ‘eğitilen’ insanlara asimilasyon uygulandığını teyit ediyor.

Dışişleri Bakanlığı’nın herhangi bir yorum yapmadan aktardığı “Terörle Mücadele Kanunu’na ek Karar” metnine göre “terör örgütlerince kandırılan Çin vatandaşlarına Çin tarihi, Çin kültürü, Çince ve aşırılık karşıtı mevzuat ve en az bir meslek”  öğretildiği ileri sürülmektedir.  “İleri sürülmektedir” ifadesi de Dışişleri Bakanı’na ait. Bakan’ın açıklamasında ayrıca“kamplardaki Uygurların ve diğer müslümanların sayısı hakkında bir açıklama yapılmamıştır” denildi.

Dışişleri Bakanı Çavuşoğlu’nun HDP’li Gergerlioğlu’nun sorusuna verdiği cevapta,  BM’de Çin’deki durumun görüşüldüğü İnsan Hakları Konseyi’nin EPİM (Evrensel Periyodik İnceleme Mekanizması) Çalışma Grubu toplantısında Türkiye tarafından “bireylerin hiç bir hukuki zemini olmaksızın hapsedilmeleri, aileleri ve toplumla ilişkilerinin kesilmesi gibi temel hak ve hürriyetleri kısıtlayıcı idari uygulamalara ilişkin kaygılara dikkat çekildiği” ve “tüm Çin halkı için evrensel insan haklarını tanımasının teşvik edildiği” ifade edildi. Ayrıca ikili görüşmelerde de “terörle mücadelede hukuka riayet edilmesinin” ve“masum insanların teröristlerden ayırt edilmesi gerektiğinin”  “kuvvetle vurgulandığı” belirtilmiş.

Dışişleri Bakanı Çavuşoğlu açıklamasında Uygurlarla tarihi, dini, kültürel ve akrabalık bağlarımız  bulunduğunu, SUÖB (Sincan Uygur Özerk Bölgesi)’teki gelişmelerin takip edildiğini belirttikten sonra, Türkiye’nin Uygurlar konusunda hassas olduğunu şu sözlerle ifade etti: “Uygurlar hakkındaki görüşlerimiz ve duyarlılığımız, tarafımdan ve diğer üst düzey yetkililerimizce her vesileyle Çin makamlarına aktarılmaktadır”.

Cevabi açıklamanın sonunda “son 10 yıl içerisinde siyasi gerekçelerle Çin makamlarına iade edilen Uygur Türk’ü bulunmadığı” belirtildi.

Dışişleri Bakanı Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu’nun açıklaması, Türkiye’nin Doğu Türkistan’daki durumdan kaygılarının ve “Uygur hassasiyetinin”  resmi olarak en üst düzeyde ifade edilmesi anlamına geliyor.

Çin Terörle Mücadele Kanunu’nun Uygur Özerk Bölgesi’ndeki Uygulamasına Ek Kararname’nin, artık gizlenemeyen toplama kamplarına ve asimilasyona yasal zemin oluşturmak amacıyla çıkarıldığı düşünülüyor. Aslında Doğu Türkistanlılar genelde Çince biliyorlar, ama asimilasyon politikası, onların Uygurca veya Kazakça konuşmalarını engellemeyi ve Türkistan kültürünü yok etmeyi amaçladığı için Çince ve Çin kültürü eğitimi uygulanıyor. Türk lehçelerini konuşmakta ısrar edenler “sakıncalı vatandaş” sayılıyor. Doğu Türkistan’da dinî uygulamaların tamamı “aşırılık” olarak kabul edildiği için “aşırılık karşıtı mevzuat”ın  ‘tam anlamıyla özümsendiği’ anlaşılana kadar, Türkistanlılar zorunlu eğitim kampında tutulmaya devam ediyor.

Yeni Metin Belgesi


Kanadaning Birqanche Shehiride Xitaygha Qarshi Birleshme Namayish Ötküzüldi


Kanadada ötküzülgen xitaygha qarshi birleshme namayishtin bir körünüsh.

Kanadada ötküzülgen xitaygha qarshi birleshme namayishtin bir körünüsh.


Awazni köchürüsh
Kanadada ötküzülgen xitaygha qarshi birleshme namayishtin bir körünüsh.

Kanadada ötküzülgen xitaygha qarshi birleshme namayishtin bir körünüsh.RFA/Mehriban

4-Yanwar etigen kanada sherqiy türkistan jem’iyitining re’isi tuyghun abduweli qatarliq pa’aliyetchiler ziyaritimizni qobul qilip, kanadaning torunto, montériyal we wankowir sheherliride ötküzülüwatqan xitaygha qarshi naraziliq namayish heqqide melumat berdi.

Kanadaning montériyal shehiridiki namayish yétekchiliridin nurmemet ependining bildürüshiche, kanada sherqiy türkistan jem’iyitining teshkillishi bilen orunlashturulghan naraziliq namayishigha montériyal shehiri we etraptiki Uyghurlardin xéli köp sanda kishi qatnashqan. 4-Yanwar etigen hawaning soghuq bolushigha qarimay montriyal etrapidiki Uyghurlar uzun yollarni bésip namayish meydanigha etigendila yighilghan. 

Kanada sherqiy türkistan jem’iyitining re’isi tuyghun abduwelining bildürüshiche, toruntoda ötküzülüwatqan xitaygha qarshi naraziliq namayishini kanada sherqiy türkistan jem’iyiti teshkilligen bolsimu, emma namayishqa kanadada xitay hökümitige qarshi pa’aliyet élip bériwatqan, xitay démokratliri, tibetler, falun’gongchilar we “Bir erkin dunya” teshkilatining ezalirimu awaz qoshqan. 

Namayish meydanidin igiligen ehwallardin melum bolushiche, torunto shehiridiki xitay konsulxanisi aldida ötküzülgen naraziliq namayishida xitayning “Qayta terbiyelesh merkezliri” namidiki jaza lagérlirigha qamalghan Uyghurlarni shertsiz qoyup bérish, xitay türmiside yillardin buyan qamilip yétiwatqan hüseyin jélilni azad qilish, xitay hökümiti yéqinda tutqun qilghan kanada puqralirini qoyup bérish telep qilinip, xitaygha qarshi naraziliq sho’arliri towlan’ghan. 

Namayish meydanidin ziyaritimizni qobul qilghan kanadadiki “Bir erkin dunya” teshkilatining bashliqi mejit ependi, xitay démokratliridin shéng shö xanim we kanadadiki xristiyan jem’iyitining ezaliri özlirining bu qétimqi namayishqa ishtirak qilishidiki sewebler heqqide toxtaldi.

“Bir erkin dunya teshkilati” ning bashliqi mejit ependi sözide mezkur teshkilatining öz pa’aliyetliride dunyaning herqaysi jaylirida da’iriler teripidin ézilishke uchrawatqan az sanliqlarning heqoquqini qoghdashni teshebbus qilip kéliwatqini bildürdi. U xitay hökümitining Uyghur qatarliq xelqlerge yürgüzüwatqan chékidin ashqan basturushigha qarita pütkül dunyaning yenila sükütte turuwatqanliqini eyiblidi. 

U mundaq dédi: “Xitayda hazir diktatorluq tüzüm küchiyiwatidu. U yerde Uyghurlar, tibetler, falun’gongchilar we xristiyan murtliri basturuliwatidu. U yerdiki jaza lagérlirigha qamalghan Uyghurlar, falun’gongchilar iztirap chékiwatidu, ularning ichki organliri éliniwatidu. Emma pütkül dunyaning közi xityaydin kélidighan pulda we iqtisadiy menpe’ette bolghini üchün bu jinayetlerge süküt qiliwatidu. Emma biz pul-menpe’etni dep u yerde boluwatqan jinayetlerge süküt qilmasliqimiz kérek. Naraziliq bildürüshimiz kérek.”

U yene kanada hökümitiningmu Uyghurlar weziyitige inkas qayturmay sükütte turuwatqanliqini tenqidlidi.

“Kanada hökümitiningmu bu mesilidiki xitaygha tutqan pozitsiyesi bizni ümidsizlendürüwatidu. Chünki kanada hökümitimu iqtisadiy menpe’etni we pulni közlewatidu. Emma bu ehwal özgirishi kérek! kanada hökümiti we dunya xitaygha qarita qattiq inkas qayturushi we téximu köprek emeliy ish qilishi kérek!”

Xitay démokratliridin shéng shö xanimmu ziyaritimizni qobul qildi. U mundaq dédi: “Men bu xil naraziliq namayishlirigha da’im qatniship turimen. Men toruntoda turuwatqinimgha 30 yilgha yéqinlashti. Men özümmu bir kishilik hoquq pa’aliyetchisi bolush süpitim bilen bundaq naraziliq namayishliridin 100 din artuqini teshkillidim désem bolidu. Chünki bügün bizning bu yerde birleshme namayish élip bérishimiz intayin muhim ehmiyetke ige. Démekchi bulghinim kompartiye xitayda hakimiyet ornatqandin buyan u yerdiki xelqler üzlüksiz halda kommunizmning ziyankeshlikige uchrap kéliwatidu. U yerdiki xelqler kompartiyening mustebit hakimiyitige naraziliq bildürüshke, qarshiliq qilishqa amalsiz halette. 50-Yillar, 60-yillar, 70-yillar, hetta 80-90-yillardin kéyinmu u yerde kommunist hökümetning insaniyetke qarshi jinayetliri dawamliq yüz bériwatidu. Bügünki kün’ge kelgende bolsa milyondin artuq Uyghur jaz lagérlirigha qamilip, ulargha qarita insaniyetke qarshi jinayet ötküzüliwatidu. Eger biz erkin dunyada yashap turuqluqmu buxil jinayetke süküt qilsaq, u halda insanliqqimizghimu yüz kélelmeymiz.”

Kanada sherqiy türkistan jem’iyitining mu’awin re’isi ekrem ependi bu qétimqi namayishning kanada bilen xitayning munasiwiti yirikleshken waqitqa toghra kelgenlikini bildürdi. U naraziliq namayishidin ilgiriki teshwiqat xizmiti yaxshi ishlen’genliki üchün namayish meydanigha kanadadiki tesiri nisbeten küchlük bolghan taratqularning muxbirlirimu kelgenlikini bildürdi. 

Kanada sherqiy türkistan jem’iyitining re’isi tuyghun abduweli ependi 4-yanwar ötküzülgen namayishning 2019-yili kirishi bilen mezkur teshkilatning orunlashturushida élip bérilghan tunji qétimliq namayish ikenlikini bildürdi. U kanada sherqiy türkistan jem’iyitining bundin kéyin öz pa’aliyetlirini dawamliq kücheytidighanliqini bildürdi.

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China’s detention of Muslims in re-education camps ‘country’s worst human rights abuse since Mao era’, MPs told

‘Grave human rights violations’ being committed on ‘vast scale’ in Xinjiang province, experts say

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The Independent

China’s detention of millions of Uighur Muslims in re-education camps amounts to human rights abuse on a scale not seen since in the country since Chairman Mao’s era, British MPs have been told.

The UK must not remain silent over “grave” violations committed during Beijing’s crackdown on the minority in western Xinjiang province, the foreign affairs committee heard.

Up to three million Uighurs have been arbitrarily detained in centres which Amnesty International has compared to “wartime concentration camps”. Released internees have alleged they were tortured into denouncing Islam and swearing loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party.

Steve Tsang, director of the London School of Oriental Studies said: “When you have an identifiable group of citizens in a country where something like one tenth of that identifiable group live in camps, you have an enormous human rights problem.

“Ever since the end of Chairman Mao’s era in 1976, and probably including the period of hard military crackdown in 1989, we have not seen the scale of human rights abuse that we are seeing today in Xinjiang.”

An estimated 45 million people were worked, starved or beaten to death under rule of Mao Zedong, who founded the People’s Republic of China.

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Speaking to MPs on the committee, Prof Tsang urged politicians to speak out over abuses against Uighur Muslims

He said: “I think if we believe in our values, in our system – even though there’s probably not much we can actually do to change the situation in China – it would be wrong for us to remain silent on the subject.”

China denied the existence of the camps until October last year, and since claimed it is detaining people guilty of minor crimes in what it describes as “vocational education centres”.

Eva Pils, a China human rights expert and professor of law at King’s College London, said Beijing had been careful to present the crackdown as a response to the threat of Islamist terrorism.

She said there was “credible evidence” human rights abuses were happening on “vast scale”.

9 January 2019

Prof Pils told MPs: “The grave human rights violations that Professor Tsang was alluding to in my view almost certainly … include not only arbitrary detention of people in these camps but also the use of torture to ‘transform’ them, to ‘de-extremify’ them.

“That, in my view, especially as we have credible evidence that it happens at this very vast scale, is extremely concerning.”

Beijing faces mounting international criticism over its treatment of the Uighur minority, an estimated 15 million of whom live in China.  

UN human rights official Michelle Bachelet, said in December her office was seeking access to Xinjiang to verify “worrying reports”. The UK government has also raised concerns and pledged to “press China to change its approach”.

“I think it’s extremely important to continue raising the issue,” said Prof Pils. “The ability of any western country, including the UK, to influence China is limited, but I think that at least we need to ask for investigation. It would be appropriate, I think, to seek the appointment of international observers.”Support free-thinking journalism and subscribe to Independent Minds

Conservative MP Tom Tugendhat, who chairs the Foreign Affairs Committee, warned China’s Muslim crackdown could put Britain at greater risk of Islamist terror attacks.

He said: “On jihadi websites today, you are starting to see very clear condemnation of the Chinese government’s actions on the Uighar population. You seeing very, very clearly the imprisonment and torture of Muslims in western China being cited as reasons for jihad.

“Indeed, there is a real issue here for countries like our own that the mass torture, imprisonment and in some cases possibly even execution of Muslims in western China is leading to a rise in jihadism that could easily have repercussions for us, not just in China.”

Prof Tsang replied: “The basic point you make is a very, very true one. China did have a very, very small terrorist problem before.

“If this policy is continued you will have a very large number of Muslim people – Uighurs or sometimes other nationalities who will turn to jihadism because they have got nothing else.”MORE ABOUTUIGHUR MUSLIMSXINJIANGCHAIRMAN MAOLONDON SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL STUDIESCHINA

Uyghurs Secretly Moved to Hide Mass Detentions

12/17/2018 LI ZAILI

International media has already reported that Uyghurs are being transferred to, and detained in, other provinces of China. Bitter Winter has uncovered further details about the movement, and what we are learning is disturbing.

According to sources in Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the provinces of Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Heilongjiang, and others have been assigned quotas of detainees to take. At present, sources have reported that Shaanxi Province in central China was issued a quota of about 25,000 people. An estimated 500,000 Uyghur Muslims will be dispersed and detained throughout China.

It would appear that the effort to disperse Uyghurs across the country is an attempt to hide the numbers of those arrested from the wider world. An insider at a public security bureau in the northeastern province of Heilongjiang told our reporter, “The re-education camps in Xinjianghave already drawn international attention. The highest authorities ordered that these prisoners be transferred elsewhere. That way, when international organizations investigate, there will be no one in the re-education camps anymore.”

Insiders report that officials are taking extreme steps to cover up their movement of prisoners. As an example, in September, corps of the People’s Armed Police from outside of Xinjiang arrived with large buses to transfer thousands of Muslims out of Xinjiang’s Kashi prefecture. To prevent this news from leaking, every officer who participated in the escort process was forced to sign confidentiality agreements and was warned that anyone who disclosed information would be sentenced to three years in prison.

The buses used in the operation had misleading labeling painted on their sides, and license plates were obscured on police vehicles from other jurisdictions. Any part of the vehicles that indicated a place of origin was hidden. Police ID numbers and badges were removed from the uniforms of officers. During the transfer to their new detention centers, Uyghurs’ heads were covered in black hoods, and curtains covered all the vehicle windows so that no prisoner could see outside. Police officers used hand gestures to communicate with each other to avoid speech giving away their origins. During the transfer, roads were guarded by armed police, and some roads and railroads were closed altogether.

One prison guard, who spoke on condition of anonymity, reported that all prisoners arrived at their new homes at night, to make it more difficult for them to know where they were. Before arrival, the prison’s signboard was removed. Any signs inside the prison that refer to place names were also removed. The Uyghur detainees likely have no idea where they are being held, and their relatives face an even greater challenge to find out where their loved ones have been transferred.

Our sources report that the government is extremely nervous about the situation. Meetings about the movement of Uyghurs are said to be highly confidential, and records of meetings are encrypted when saved.

Sources fear that the information available so far could be just the tip of the iceberg. They say that Uyghurs are dying during the process of being moved. According to an insider in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, located in the north of China, one prisoner was beaten to death by the police during his transfer. The source fears the victim’s body might already have been cremated. This news has been kept highly confidential, and it is difficult to learn more details.

Prison guards who spoke to Bitter Winter anonymously had said that most of the transferred prisoners are males, and are serving heavy sentences from 10 to 20 years. Among them, the oldest is already in his seventies. Some of them have been charged with committing “treason” or “crimes against national security” and later given prison sentences. However, according to official records, some were imprisoned because they got in an argument with local officials or because they were caught praying several decades ago.

Some think that the prisoners’ real crime is their religious belief. One source told Bitter Winter, “Muslims won’t accept that the Communist Party gives the things they eat, drink and enjoy. They firmly believe that everything people enjoy is the gift of Allah. They are detained just because they hold this belief. That is their greatest ‘crime.’”

Bitter Winter will continue to report more details regarding the plight of the Uyghurs as they become available.

Reported by Gu Qi & Li Zaili

12 Dölet Diplomatining Uyghur Élidiki “Orunlashturulghan” Ziyariti Közetküchilerni Qayil Qilalmidi


12 Dölet diplomatining Uyghur élidiki "Orunlashturulghan" ziyariti jeryanidiki "Qayta terbiyelesh lagéri" diki ussul sen'et pa'aliyiti. 2019-Yili 5-yanwar, xoten.

12 Dölet diplomatining Uyghur élidiki “Orunlashturulghan” ziyariti jeryanidiki “Qayta terbiyelesh lagéri” diki ussul sen’et pa’aliyiti. 2019-Yili 5-yanwar, xoten.


Awazni köchürüsh

Xitay da’iriliri yéqinda roytérsni öz ichige alghan kichik kölemlik bir chet’el muxbirliri guruppisi we shundaqla rusiye, hindonéziye, tayland, qazaqistan, hindistan, pakistan, afghanistan qatarliq 12 döletning diplomatlirini teshkillep, Uyghur rayonidiki atalmish 3 “Kespiy téxnika terbiyelesh merkizi” ni ziyaret qildurghan.

Xitayning “Yershari waqti géziti” we “Shinjang géziti” qatarliqlar 7-yanwar küni tarqatqan xewerliride yuqiridiki bu ziyaretni “Bir qisim gherb metbu’atlirining qayta terbiye merkezliri heqqidiki asassiz xewerliri we hujumlirigha qayturulghan jawab” dep körsetken. 

“Shinjang géziti” ning bu heqtiki xewiridin qarighanda, yuqiridiki döletlerning diplomatliri2018-yili 12-ayning 28-künidin 30-künigiche Uyghur rayonluq hökümetning teklipige bina’en ürümchi, qeshqer we xotenlerde ziyarette bolup, u yerdiki bir qisim terbiyelesh merkezlirini we meschitlerni ziyaret qilghan. Xewerde yene ularning islam dini institutini ziyaret qilghanliqimu tilgha élin’ghan. “Shinjang géziti” xewiride, yuqiridiki diplomatlarning Uyghur élidiki milletler siyasitidin, kespiy terbiyelesh orunliri arqiliq yaritilghan ünümni körüp qattiq tesirlen’genliki, bu orunlarning shara’itlirini körüp medhiye oqughanliqi küchep teshwiq qilin’ghan. 

Halbuki, xitayning yuqiridiki teshwiqatliri xitay weziyitini közitip kéliwatqan közetküchilerni qayil qilalmidi. Kishilik hoquqni közitish teshkilatining xitay ishliri diréktori sofi réchardson yuqiridiki ziyaretke inkas qayturup xelq’araning xitay orunlashturghan yuqiridiki bu ziyaretke aldanmasliqi kéreklikini bildürdi. U kishilik hoquqni közitish teshkilatining tor bétide élan qilghan bayanatida xitay hökümitining ezeldin xelq’ara jem’iyetke qarita “Oyun oynaydighan aditi barliqini we yuqiridiki bu diplomatlarning ziyaritining hergizmu bir musteqil we ishenchlik tekshürüshke wekillik qilalmaydighanliqi” ni bayan qilghan. U bügün bu heqte radiyomizgha qilghan sözidimu özining yuqiridiki bu ziyaretni qayil qilarliq dep qarimaydighanliqini éytti. U sözide: “Qachan xitay hökümiti diplomatlar, kishilik hoquq mutexessisliri we tekshürgüchilerning rayonda musteqil halda mesile bar dep qaralghan orunlarni xalighanche ziyaret qilishigha we ularning herqandaq kishi bilen mexpiy halda söhbetlishishige, söhbet qilin’ghan kishilerning hökümetning öch élishigha uchrimaydighanliqi kapaletke ige bolmighuche hökümet orunlashturghan bundaq jeryanlar u yerde boluwatqanlargha bir jawab bolalmaydu” dédi. 

Xitay hökümiti Uyghur élide yolgha qoyghan “Yépiq terbiye lagérliri” gha a’it tepsilatlar ashkarilan’ghanséri bu lagérlargha qarita musteqil tekshürüsh élip bérish heqqidiki chaqiriqlarmu kücheygen idi. 

Ötken yili 10‏-ayda kanada, firansiye, awstraliye, shiwétsiye, en’gliye qatarliq 15 döletning xitayda turushluq bash elchiliri Uyghur aptonom rayoni partkom sékrétari chén chü’en’gogha xet yézip, uning bilen Uyghurlarning weziyitini sözlishishni telep qilghan. Biraq bu qétimqi ziyaretke orunlashturulghanlar ichide yuqiridiki döletlerning birmu wekili yoq bolushi küchlük diqqet qozghaydighan nuqtilarning biri. 

Sofi xanim sözide chén chü’en’go bilen körüshüshni telep qilghan döletlerning bu ziyaretke teklip qilinmasliqi bir tasadipiyliq emes, dep körsetti. U sözide: “Eger xitay heqiqeten dunyani bu mesilide qayil qilimen dése, u halda u yerge bérishni telep qilghan döletlerge ruxset qilishi, chet’ellerde turuwatqanlarning xitaygha qaytishigha, musteqil tekshürgüchilerning xalighan orunlargha bérip tekshürüshige yol qoyushi kérek. Menche chén chü’en’go bilen körüshüshni telep qilghan döletlerning bu ziyaretke teklip qilinmasliqi bir tasadipiyliq emes. Ular bilen yuqiridiki bu ziyaretke teklip qilin’ghan döletler bir-biridin nahayiti perqliq bolghan döletlerdur” dédi. 

Bügün dunya Uyghur qurultiyimu bu heqte mexsus bayanat élan qilip, Uyghur élidiki barliq lagérlargha qarita cheklimisiz ziyaret élip bérilishi kéreklikini bildürdi. Ularmu bayanatida xitay hökümitining yoshurghudek bir eyibi bolmisa, u halda özining “Muweppeqiyetliri” ni körsitish üchün herqandaq bir dölet we yaki organning Uyghur élidiki xalighan lagérgha cheklimisiz halda bérishigha yol qoyulushi kéreklikini tekitlidi.

Munasiwetlik xewerler

China Targets Prominent Uighur Intellectuals to Erase an Ethnic Identity

Rahile Dawut, above with camera, is an anthropologist at Xinjiang University who studied Islamic shrines, traditional songs and folklore. She was detained in December 2017 and has not been heard from since.CreditLisa Ross

Rahile Dawut, above with camera, is an anthropologist at Xinjiang University who studied Islamic shrines, traditional songs and folklore. She was detained in December 2017 and has not been heard from since.CreditCreditLisa Ross

By Austin Ramzy

  • Jan. 5, 2019

ISTANBUL — As a writer and magazine editor, Qurban Mamut promoted the culture and history of his people, the Uighurs, and that of other Turkic minority groups who live in far western China. He did so within the strict confines of censorship imposed by the Chinese authorities, who are ever wary of ethnic separatism and Islamic extremism among the predominantly Muslim peoples of the region.

It was a line that Mr. Mamut navigated successfully for 26 years, eventually rising to become editor in chief of the Communist Party-controlled magazine Xinjiang Civilization before retiring in 2011.

“My father is very smart; he knows what is the red line, and if you cross it you are taken to jail,” said his son, Bahram Sintash, who now lives in Virginia. “You work very close to the red line to teach people the culture. You have to be smart and careful with your words.”

Then last year, the red line moved. Suddenly, Mr. Mamut and more than a hundred other Uighur intellectuals who had successfully navigated the worlds of academia, art and journalism became the latest targets of a sweeping crackdown in the region of Xinjiang that has ensnared as many as one million Muslims in indoctrination camps.


The mass detention of some of China’s most accomplished Uighurs has become an alarming symbol of the Communist Party’s most intense social-engineering drive in decades, according to scholars, human rights advocates and exiled Uighurs.

As the guardians of Uighur traditions, chroniclers of their history and creators of their art, the intellectuals were building the Central Asian, Turkic-speaking society’s reservoir of collective memory within the narrow limits of authoritarian rule. Their detention underscores the party’s attempts to decimate Uighur identity in order to remold the group into a people who are largely secular, integrated into mainstream Chinese culture and compliant with the Communist Party, observers say.

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The Chinese government has described the detentions as a job training program aimed at providing employment opportunities for some of the country’s poorest people. But a list of more than 100 detained Uighur scholars compiled by exiles includes many prominent poets and writers, university heads and professors of everything from anthropology to Uighur history.

“The fact that highly educated intellectuals and academics and scientists and software engineers are being held in these facilities is one of the best counterarguments to authorities’ claims that this is some kind of educational program meant to benefit Uighurs,” said Maya Wang, a Hong Kong-based researcher for Human Rights Watch.

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The removal of high-profile Uighur scholars familiar with the Chinese government, and the country’s education and legal systems, is aimed at erasing not only the group’s unique ethnic identity but also its ability to defend such traditions, said a Uighur professor now living in Istanbul who asked not to be identified because of possible risks to family in Xinjiang.Qurban Mamut, a magazine editor in Xinjiang who has been detained. “My father is very smart; he knows what is the red line,” his son said.CreditBahram Sintash

Qurban Mamut, a magazine editor in Xinjiang who has been detained. “My father is very smart; he knows what is the red line,” his son said.CreditBahram Sintash

Many scholars trace the assault on intellectuals to the imprisonment of Ilham Tohti, a Uighur economist, in 2014. Mr. Tohti, who was an outspoken critic of the discrimination Uighurs face in China, was sentenced to life in prison after being found guilty of separatism.

More detentions came in 2017. Many of those targeted worked on preserving Uighur culture.

Rahile Dawut, one of the most well known of the disappeared Uighur academics, is an anthropologist at Xinjiang University who studied Islamic shrines, traditional songs and folklore. Ms. Dawut was detained in December 2017 and hasn’t been heard from since.

Before the crackdown, the Uighur intellectual elite offered a bridge between the body of Uighur society, who number about 11 million and are largely poor farmers, and the much wealthier Han Chinese, who dominate economic and political power. The scholars also worked carefully to try to improve the lot of a group that complained of widespread discrimination and draconian restrictions on religious activity.

These scholars offered a moderate path, where Uighurs could maintain religious and cultural practices without turning to extreme and isolationist ideas, said Rune Steenberg, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Copenhagen.

“This is the really big tragedy about the clampdown,” Dr. Steenberg said. “They were actually bridge builders of integration of broader Uighur society into modern Chinese society and economy.”

Many young Uighurs have been inspired by the scholars’ accomplishments, said Erkin Sidick, a Uighur engineer who went to the United States for graduate school in 1988 and now works on telescopes for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Mr. Sidick said hundreds would attend informal talks he gave on pursuing graduate degrees and many closely studied a book he published that compiled biographies of Uighur academics.

“Uighur people value education very much,” he said.

Now, Uighurs keep a grimmer list of Uighur intellectuals — those who have disappeared in the current campaign.

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Tahir Hamut, a Uighur poet who lives in Virginia, began working with other Uighur exiles to collect the names of those detained over the past year based on news reports and information from families and classmates. The list has now grown to 159 Uighurs and five others from other minority groups.

“These people are all the most prestigious in Xinjiang,” Mr. Hamut said. “They are models who all study diligently and raise themselves up. Their arrest is a great injury, a great attack to all Uighurs.”

The Chinese authorities have accused Uighurs in official positions of being “two-faced,” or mouthing the official line in public but resisting the crackdown in private. Such labels have surrounded the removal of several top administrators at universities in Xinjiang.Many scholars trace the assault on intellectuals to the imprisonment of Ilham Tohti, a Uighur economist, in 2014.CreditAndy Wong/Associated Press

Many scholars trace the assault on intellectuals to the imprisonment of Ilham Tohti, a Uighur economist, in 2014.CreditAndy Wong/Associated Press

The Xinjiang government propaganda department and the news office for the State Council, China’s cabinet, did not respond to faxed requests for comment. But officials in Xinjiang have clearly stated their resolve to pursue people they see as hindering efforts to rewire Uighurs and steer them from what authorities have called religious extremism.

“Break their lineage, break their roots, break their connections and break their origins,” wrote Maisumujiang Maimuer, a religious affairs official, in a commentary in the state news media. “Completely shovel up the roots of ‘two-faced people,’ dig them out, and vow to fight these two-faced people until the end.”

The campaign has not spared scholars who expressed support for the party, such as Abdulqadir Jalaleddin, a scholar of medieval Central Asian poetry at Xinjiang Normal University who worked to preserve Uighur culture and identity.

“He was a very moderate man who always tried to give a balanced view, so much so that a lot of Uyghur nationalists accused him of selling out to the regime,” Rachel Harris, who studies Uighur music at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London and has known Mr. Jalaleddin for more than a decade, said in an email. (Uyghur is an alternative spelling of Uighur.)


Last year, Mr. Jalaleddin joined a government-led campaign for prominent Uighurs to write open letters declaring their allegiance to the state.

Despite that declaration, he was detained in January 2018, according to overseas Uighur organizations.

“So many moderate intellectuals have been detained now,” Dr. Harris said. “I don’t know how else to understand this, except as a deliberate policy to deprive Uyghurs of their cultural memory.”

It is a pattern that has repeated itself in the far western region. The authorities targeted Uighur intellectuals after the People’s Liberation Army occupied Xinjiang in 1949, and even before in the late 1930s, when Xinjiang was ruled by a Soviet-backed warlord, said Ondrej Klimes, a researcher with the Oriental Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences who studies Xinjiang and the Uighurs.

“It makes the community easier to be subjugated, more cooperative, more docile,” Dr. Klimes said. “You have this whenever an authoritarian regime comes, they first target intellectuals.”

By detaining so many influential figures, the government appears to be acknowledging that its efforts to woo Uighurs to accept the primacy of the Chinese state have failed, and that it must use more forceful methods, Dr. Steenberg said.

“The government has lost,” he said, “and now like a chess player about to lose, it swipes the board.”A version of this article appears in print on Jan. 6, 2019, on Page A11 of the New York edition with the headline: China’s Campaign Against Uighurs Has New Target: Their Top Thinkers. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper | Subscribe