Yéngisar Nahiyiside Nuqtiliq Aililerning Derwazisi Aldigha Közitish Kamérasi Orunlashturulghan

Uyghur élida kocha, mehelle we meschitlerni közitish üchün bulung puchqaqlargha ornitilghan közitish apparatlirining biri. 2010-Yili 2-Iyul, ürümchi.

Uyghur élida kocha, mehelle we meschitlerni közitish üchün bulung puchqaqlargha ornitilghan közitish apparatlirining biri. 2010-Yili 2-Iyul, ürümchi.

 AFP

Yéqinda bir radiyo anglighuchi bizge xet yézip, yéngisar nahiyiside bixeterlik közitish kamérasining kocha doqmushlirigha orunlashturulushi az kelgendek, emdi mezkur nahiyege qarashliq sitil yézisining her qaysi kentliridiki her bir ailining ishik aldigha orunlashturulushqa bashlighanliqini bildürgen.

Yuqiriqi radiyo anglighuchimizning bildürüshiche, yéngisar nahiyesining bashqa yézilirida deslepki qedemde qamaq jazasi bérilgen yaki terbiyileshke élip kirip ketken kishilerning qorusining aldigha közitish kamérasi qoyulup bolghan.

Xitay hökümitining uyghur rayonidiki her qaysi yéza-Kentlerge közitish apparati orunlashturushi, uning mezkur rayonda omumyüzlük éléktronluq közitish sistémisi qurup, kishilerning herikitini tor, téléfon, közitish kamérasi, aptomobil iz qoghlash eswabi, éléktronluq kimlik, yüz tonush apparati qatarliqlar éléktronluq üsküniler lar arqiliq kontrol qilish pilanining bir qismidur.

Uning mezkur pilanida, her qaysi nahiye, yéza-Kentlerdiki bixeterlik közitish kaméralirini, kishilerning qolidiki her xil éléktronluq alaqe wasitilirini shu nahiyening j x idarisi qarmiqidiki éléktronluq közitish qomandanliq merkizi közitidu we kontrol qilidu.

Seyshenbe küni biz, yuqiriqi radio anglighuchimiz teminligen yip uchigha asasen yéngisar nahiyisi we qeshqer wilayitining bashqa nahiyelerge téléfon qilip, qamaq jazasi bérilgen yaki terbiyileshke élip kirip ketken «nuqtiliq aililer» ning ishik aldigha bixeterlik kamérasi orunlashturush mesilisini sürüshtürduq.

Sürüshtürüsh dawamida yéngisar nahiyesidiki bir saqchixanining nöwetchi xadimi, yéza-Kentlerdiki her bir«nuqtiliq aile» ge bir kaméra orunlashturulghanliqini démigen bolsimu, biraq ular olturushluq her bir kochigha bir kaméra orunlashturulghanliqini delillidi.

Nöwetchi: hee lushang boldi, hemmisi saq méngiwatidu. Kentlergimu békitken. Asasen gangping, yéziliq saqchixana, kent saqchixanilirigha békittuq.

Muxbir: nuqtiliq aililergichu? nuqtiliq aililerge békittinglarmu- Békitmidinglar?

Saqchi: nuqtiliq aililerning mundaq ishikining aldigha qoyduq. Hee, bir ailining ishikining aldigha. Yol boyighilam qoyduq.

Muxbir: her bir kochigha birnimu yaki her bir nuqtiliq ailige birni qoydunglarmu?

Saqchi: her bir ailige birni qoymiduq. Mundaq ariliq qoyup qoyduq. 100 Métir yaki 200 métir ariliqqa birni qoyduqmikin. Andin 4 kocha éghizigha we nuqtiliq yol böleklirige qoyduq.

Ilgiri yerlik ahaliler bizge dairilerning bixeterlik kamérasi orunlashturush pulini «nuqtiliq aililer» ge töletkenlikini bildürgen idi. Biraq mezkur nahiyediki bashqa bir saqchixanining yene bir nöwetchi xadimi, kaméra orunlashturush pulini «nuqtiliq aililer» ge töletkenlikini ret qildi.

Nöwetchi: közitish apparati asasen orunlashturulup boldi. Qanche kentke orunlashturulghanliqini men taza uqmaydikenmen, emma jiq yerge orunlashturup boldi.

Muxbir: kaméraning pulini «nuqtiliq aile tölewatamdu yaki nahiyening buninggha ajratqan puli barmu?

Nöwetchi: bu yerdikige déhqanlardin pul yighmidi. Hökümettin orunlashturup qiliwatidu.

Muxbir: lékin biz hökümet orunlashturghan kaméraning pulini nuqtiliq aililerdin éliwatidu, dep angliduqqu?

Nöwetchi: yaq, yaq, undaq emes. Yaqey, dukanlargha orunlashturghan kaméraning pulini aldi bolghay. Nuqtiliq aililerge orunlashturghanni hökümet qilip berdimikin.

Muxbir: ashu her bir nuqtiliq ailining ishik aldigha birni orunlashturdinglarmu yaki nuqtiliq aile bar kochigha birdin orunlashturdinglarmu?

Nöwetchi: yaq, kochigha orunlashturdi. Ashundaq nuqtiliq orunlargha. Bu yerde pulni ulargha töletken undaq ish yoqqu. Bashqa yézilarda bolghan-Bolmighanliqini uqmidim. Undaq pulni déhqanlardin yighmidi. Hökümettin orunlashturuwatidu, hazir.

Biraq xitayning yuqiriqi amanliq siyasiti kishilik hoquq teshkilatlirini we cheteldiki uyghur paaliyetchilirini endishige sélip kelgen. Ular xitayning alghan mezkur rayonidiki qattiq bixeterlik tedbirlirining kontrol sirtigha chiqip kétiwatqanliqini agahlandurup kelgen idi.

D u q ning qanun meslihetchisi, amérikadiki uyghur adwokat nuri türkel ependi, xitay hökümitining uyghur rayonidiki amanliq tedbirlirini dunyaning bashqa jayida uchratqili bolmaydighanliqini bildürüp, «bu uning özige bolghan chüshenchisining yoqluqini körsitidu», dédi.

Nuri türkel: «buni inglizchida aldini élish tedbiri deymiz. Emdi mushu közitish üskünilirini ornitish, insanlarning shexsiyitige kirish qanchilik normal bolidu, dégen soalni sorash kérek. Buni sorash üchün bu tedbirlerni qolliniwatqan hökümetning néme arzu-Istiki bar dégenge qarash kérek. Tedbirlerge qarisaq uning hemmisi heddidin ashqan radikal tedbirler…. Qandaq sewebtin bolushidin qetiynezer bu tedbirlerni dunyaning bashqa yéride körgenlikimizni, anglighanliqimizni qiyas qilghili bolmaydu. Buni yighip éytqanda némige kélip toxtaydu, désingiz, bu xitay hökümitining özining xataliqlirini bilidighanliqi, bu siyasitining bir küni bir yerdin téship chiqidighanliqigha endishe bilen qarawatqanliqi yaki özige ishenmigechke bu xil aldini élish xaraktérlik radikal tedbirlerni ishlitip, xelq ammisida wehime peyda qiliwatqanliqini bildüridu».

Nuri türkel ependi yene, éléktronluq közitish sistémisi heqqide puqralar biliwélishqa tégishlik 3 halqiliq nuqta barliqini bildürdi.

Nuri türkel: «bu mesile toghrisida 3 halqiliq nuqta bar. Birinchisi, 11‏-Séntebir weqesidin kéyin xelqarada tor bixeterliki we shexsi uchurlarning qoghdilishqa érishelmeywatqanliq mesilisi. Ikkinchisi, xitay hökümitining téxnikiliq usullar arqiliq uyghurlarni közitishi atalmish dölet bixeterlikige xizmet qildurush üchün élip bériwatidu. U, bu xitayning mewjut bolush éhtimalliqi, dep qarighan bixeterlik tehditining aldini élish üchün qiliwatqan nerse. Üchinchisi, uyghurlardiki shexsi uchur mexpiyetliki, dégen uqumning yoqluqi yaki bu heqtiki qarishining roshen bolmasliq alamiti. Bu mesilige mushu 3 halqidin qarisaq buning menteqe asasini körüwalalaymiz».

«Nuqtiliq aile» xitay dairilirining uyghur rayonida teqib we nazaret qilinidighan aile we shexsler üchün yaratqan bir siyasiy términi. Dairiler burun türmige kirip chiqqan sabiq siyasiy mehbuslar, diniy, siyasiy qarishi perqliq uyghurlarni «nuqtiliq aile» dep békitip kelgen idi.

Biraq dairiler yéqinqi yillardin béri dairiler bu xil aile we shexslerning katégoriyesini kéngeytip, namaz oquydighan, hijaplanghan, diniy ehkamlargha ching, perzenti yaki aile ezasi chetelde oquydighan we yaki yashaydighan, terbiyilesh merkezlirige soliwélinghan aile we shexslerni «nuqtiliq aililer» katégoriyesige kirgüzgen. Erkin

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Uyghur Mehelliliri Uyghur Ana Tili we Uyghur Milliy Kimlikini Qoghdaydighan Mustehkem Sépil

 

Aptori: Seher

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Uyghur mehelliliri uyghur ana tili we uyghur milliy kimlikini qoghdaydighan mustehkem sépil

Yéqinda atalmish shinjang uyghur aptonom rayonluq ma’arip komitétining sherqi türkistanda uyghur ana tilini omumyüzlük emeldin qaldurush heqqidiki höjjiti tarqitilghandin kéyin weten ichi we sirtidiki uyghurlarning qattiq naraziliqini qozghidi. Nurghunlighan uyghur ziyaliyliri we qelem igiliri, uyghur ana tili duch kéliwatqan xirislargha qandaq taqabil turimiz dégen téma üstide bash qaturushqa we qelem tewritishke bashlidi. Menmu bir uyghur bolush süpiti bilen ana tilim duch kéliwatqan bu xirislar shundaqla, bu xirisning arqa körünüshi heqqide qelem tewritishni muwapiq kördüm.

Méningche xitay hökümiti uyghur ana tilini yoq qilish meqsitige ongushluq yétish üchün, ishni aldi bilen uyghur ana tilining böshüki hésablan’ghan uyghur mehellilirini xaniweyran qilishtin bashlidi.

Uyghur mehelliliri, uyghur ana tili, uyghur meshrepliri, uyghur putboli, uyghur xelq naxshiliri uyghurlarning döliti. Gerche uyghur xelqini dunyada intayin qudretlik dep qaralghan bir herbiy küch kontrol qilip tursimu, uyghurlar bu döletliri bilen esirlerni esirlerge ulap, xitayning herqaysi dewrlerde yürgüzgen assimilyatsiye siyasitini mensitmey keldi. Uyghur mehelliliri ölmisun, uyghur meshrepliri ölmisun millet ölmisun.

Her milletning özige xas nersiliri bolidu. Bu her ademning özige xas nersiliri bolghan’gha oxshaydu. Uyghur mehelliliri uyghur xelqining özige xas qimmetlik nersisi. Uyghur mehelliliri uzaq tarixlardin buyan, mustemlikichilerning uyghur medeniyiti, dini étiqadi we milliy kimlikini yoqitish üchün oynighan hiyle-mikirlirini bit chit qilip kelgen mustehkem qorghan. Uyghur mehelliliri uyghur milliy rohiyitining jughlanmisi. Wetinimiz sherqi türkistandiki uyghur mehelle medeniyitini saqlap qalalighan ghulja, qeshqer, xoten, qumul, aqsu, kuchar qatarliq jaylarda uyghurlarning jenggiwar rohiyitimu saqlinip kelgen.

Islahat échiwétish we gherbni échish deydighan shéker yalitilghan sho’arlar bilen, wetinimizge shundaqla ghulja shehirige bösüp kirgen xitay tajawuzchiliri, uyghurlarning güzel mehellilirini dessep cheylidi. Gül-giyah, baghuchimenlik bilen chiqishalmaydighan xitay aqqunliri, ni-ni qimmetlik qoghdilidighan rayonlirimizni, baghubostanliqlirimizni, sayahet rayonlirimizni exletxanigha aylandurup qoydi.

Ular birmu xitay ariliship baqmighan, sap uyghur mehelliliridin endishe we qorqunch hés qilatti. Gah bu mehelliler, ular üchün xuddi shiddet bilen yopurulup kéliwatqan déngiz tashqini(tsunami) ni esletse, gah ghezep bilen hujum qilip kéliwatqan shir, yolwas we böriler topini eslitetti. Her küni charlash élip baridighan xitay eskerliri neziridiki ghulja mehelliliri sirliq we qorqunchluq jay hésablinatti. Ular yiraq jéjang, jangsu qatarliq ichkiri xitay ölkiliridin sherqi türkistan’gha kélip ölüp kétishtin intayin qorqatti.

Derheqiqet ular atalmish shinjanggha kelgendin buyan, süniy halette uyghurlar bilen yaxshi munasiwet ornitip keldi. Eskerler, xitaylar bilen uyghurlarning menggü yaxshi munasiwet ornitalmaydighanliqini, eger xitay azadliq armiyesi we bingtu’en bolmighan ehwal astida, bu wetende xitaylarning birer künmu aramida yashiyalmaydighanliqini yaxshi biletti.

Ghulja shehiridiki meshhur teshlepki baziridin shimali yönilish boyiche mangghanda, özbék mehellisi, dölet bagh mehellisi, top térek mehellisi, tajiway mehellisi, törem mehellisi, ghopurbay mehellisi, qazanchi mehellisi, könchi, üch dukan, töt dukan, töpichi mehellisi, tashköwrük mehellisi, aghu mehellisi qatarliq sanja-sanjaq uyghur mehelliliri sozulup yatidu. Sherqtin gherbke, shimaldin jenubqa sozulup özara gireliship ketken bu mehelliler topi, gah mustehkem polat zenjirler topini esletse, gah mürini mürige tirep, milliy kimlikini qoghdap qélish üchün küresh qiliwatqan qarawullargha oxshaydu.

Bu mehelliler, riwayetlerdiki yériling téshimdek yérilip, qanchilighan zulum we qiyin qistaq azabida ingrighan uyghur perzentlirige waqitliq bolsimu bash panah bolup keldi. Mehellidin ibaret bu polat qorghan xitay qoghlighan qanchilighan erkinlik jengchilirini oz qoynigha élip ulargha panahliq berdi.

Uyghur mehelliliri tip tinch we cheksiz ketken déngizdek körün’gini bilen, barliq inqilablarning ochiqi idi. Uyghur mehelliliri mehelle dégen nami bilenla xuddi xitaygha qarshi yoshurun yer asti teshkilatigha oxshaytti.

Uyghur mehelliliri, külke chaqchaq, saz neghmiliri bilen bighem we bixudtek körün’gini bilen, oyghaq we hoshyar idi.

Bizning sanjaq-sanjaq uyghur mehellilirimiz xitay mustemlike qiliwalghan 60 yildin buyan, uyghur medeniyiti, dini étiqadi we milliy kimlikini qoghdap qélishta muhim hesse qoshup kelmekte.

Mehellisi bolmighan milletning héchnémisi bolmaydu. Öz medeniyiti, dini étiqadi we örp adetlirini öz ichige alghan, öz nersiliridin tez yiraqliship kétidu. Uyghur mehelliliride ötküzülidighan toy tökün nezir chiragh, meshrep, külke chaqchaq we letipe sorunliri we putbol söyer roh, xitay siyasetwazliqi we sho’arwazliqidin xali xasliqlardur. Uyghurlarning uyghur bolup hazirghiche saqlinip qélishidiki muhim amillardur. Ghulja xelqi her qaysi dewrlerde béshigha kelgen eng éghir külpet we zulumlarni mana mushundaq turmush puriqigha bay mehelliliri arqiliq yéngip kelgen.

Söyümlük uyghur mehelliliride yiltiz tartip mustehkemlinip kelgen ili xelq naxshiliri, ili xelqining xitay élip kelgen shunche zulumlarni yéngip rohi mewjutluqini saqlap qélishidiki yene bir mustehkem

Polat qorghandur.

Ili xelq naxshiliri, naxsha emes dastan. Ili xelq naxshiliri naxsha emes, xitaygha qarshi namayishlarda towlan’ghan sho’arlarning muzika bilen kirishtürülüshi. Ili xelq naxshiliri naxsha emes uyghur xelqining achchiq kechmishlirining aghzaki saqlinip qélishi.

Ili wadisidiki uyghur mehelliliri bilen, ili xelq naxshiliri we ili chaqchaqliri öz ara gireliship jipsiliship ketken ten bilen jan. Ghulja mehelliliri ili xelq naxshiliri bilen ili chaqchaqlirini yétishtürgen tawlighan aq bash ana.

Elwette xitayning ghulja shehirini öz ichige alghan pütün sherqi türkistandiki endishisi, öz ara gireliship jipsiliship ketken uyghur mehelliliri idi. Xitaylar neziride sap uyghur mehelliliri, bükkide, qarangghu we sirliq issiq belwagh ormanliqlirigha oxshaytti.

Xitaylar birmu xitay arilashmighan sap uyghur mehelliliride, némiler boluwatqanliqini bilelmey endishe ichide idi. Xitaylar uyghur mehellilirige ma’ashliq ayghaqchilar we qulaqlarni yerleshtürüpmu ünümlük netijige érishelmidi.

Bu chentularning mehelliliri xeterlik, ularning bu topini buzuwétish kérek, külini asman’gha soruwétish kérek deytti yürekliri échishqan halda.

Xitay tajawuzchiliri ghuljidiki uyghur mehellilirige bösüp kirish we buzush chéqish pilanini tunji bolup 90- yillarda ghulja sheher xenbing yézisida bashlidi. Ular xenbing yézisida tereqqiyat rayoni qurimiz dégen bahane bilen, deslepte 40 a’ililik déhqanning qoligha 40 ming 50 ming yü’endin pul bérip, ularning munbet térilghu yerlirini tartiwélip bu altun qozuqni ichkiridin kelgen aqqun xitaylarning tawar öy sétishi we sherqi türkistandin ibaret bu jughrapiyede makanlishishi üchün zémin hazirlap berdi. Bu aqqun xitaylar xenbing yézisida yüzlerche we minglarche tawar öylerni sélip, 50 yaki 60 kwadrat métirliq tawar öylerni nechche yüz ming yü’endin sétip, sherqi türkistan’gha kelgen qisqighine waqit ichide intayin tez béyip ketti. Bu zéminning heqdar igisi bolghan xenbing yézisidiki déhqanlarning bu öylerni sétiwélishqa qurbi yetmeytti.

Eslide bu xitay tajawuzchilirining atalmish tereqqiyat rayoni qurimiz dégen sho’ar astida, uyghur mehellilirini buzush, uyghur déhqanlirini ebgarlashturush we namratlashturush xuddi susiz qaghjirighan chöl jeziridek tashlap qoyush hiylisi idi. Déhqan elwette yer bilen déhqan.

Eger insanlarning eng eqelliy we eng töwen derijidiki insani heqliridin söz échishqa toghra kelgende, bu rayonlarda tereqqiyat rayoni qurushning heqdar igiliri yenila uyghur déhqanliri idi. Hökümet uyghur déhqanlirini teshkillep, pay qoshush, yer chiqirish we hökümet banka yardimi bérish qatarliq usullar arqiliq bundaq tereqqiyat rayonlirini qurup, uyghur déhqanlirini béyish yoligha bashlighili bolatti. Emma bu yerde nurghunlighan suyiqest we pilanlar yoshurun’ghan idi. Meqset uyghur mehellilirini buzush, uyghur déhqanlirini namratlashturush.

2000- yiligha kelgende xitay tajawuzchiliri, sheher qurulushini kéngeytish dégen nam astida, ghulja shehirining gherb teripige jaylashqan üch derwaza, nowiygurt qatarliq mehellilerdiki nurghunlighan uyghurlarning qoru jaylirini erzan bahada mejburiy sétiwélip, sheher yollirini kéngeytish qurulushi élip bardi. Eslidiki exmetjan qasimi namidiki tarixi kochilarning namlirini chörüp tashliwétip, jangsu yoli, sichü’en yoli dégendek namlarni qoydi. Eslidiki bükkide aq tireklik, ériq suliri shildirlap éqip turidighan üchderwaza kochilirini buzup dessep yanjip, nurghunlighan tawar öylerni sélip, ichkiri ölkilerdin xitay aqqunlarni yötkep kélip, uyghur mehellilirige arilashturuwetti. 2000-yillarda xitay tajawuzchiliri élip barghan, sheher qurulushini kéngeytish suyiqestide nurghunlighan güzel uyghur mehelliliri weyran boldi.

«bulutlardin halqighan tulpar» namliq kitabni yazghan kanadaliq yazghuchi robert xitay tajawuzchilirining tereqqiyat rayoni qurush bahaniside, qeshqer we ghulja qatarliq qedimi sheherlerni chiqiwatqanliqidek taktikini, eyni chaghda napalyunning parizhni ishghal qilishta ishletken taktikisi bilen oxshash dep yazghan.

Robertning qarishiche, sheher qurulushini kéngeytish mustemlikichilerning sheherlerni muhasire qilishta tallighan ongay yoli bolup, eger öz mustemlike rayonlirida. Hökümetke qarshi isyanlar we partizanliq heriketliri sadir bolghanda, tajawuzchi armiye qisimliri we tankilirining sheherge bimalal kirishige qulayliq bolidiken. Napalyun eyni chaghda parizhni ishghal qilishta qollan’ghan bu sheher qurulushini kéngeytish taktikisini kéyin firansiye, aljiriye we tunisni bésiwalghandimu qollan’ghan. Mustemlikichiler her waqit mustemlike taktikilirini öz ara shérikliship kelgen.

Xitay tajawuzchiliri, tereqqiyat rayoni berpa qilish, gherbni échish we sheher qurulushini kéngeytish dégendek chirayliq yaghlima sözler bilen,

1-sanjaq-sanjaq uyghur mehellilirini yoq qilidu.

2-tömür yol qurulushi élip bérish arqiliq sherqi türkistan’gha köchmen yötkeydu.

Söyümlük uyghur mehelliliri, xitay aqqunlirining seddichindin halqip wetinimizge yamrap kétishini mudapi’e qilidighan polat qorghan.

CHINA-XINJIANG-EDUCATION-BILINGUAL

Students read from their textbooks in a classroom at a bilingual middle school for ethnic-Uighur Muslim and Han Chinese students in Hotan, 13 October 2006, in China’s far northwest Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in Central Asia. In its long history of minority education, China has engaged its more than 50 or so minority groups in bilingual education, with an officially proclaimed aim to produce bilinguals with a strong competence in Putonghua (standard Chinese) as well as their native languages in an effort to help assimilate into mainstream society. However, modification of its educational policies to achieve seperate and distinct regional objectives often result in exclusionary practices of China’s educational policy, which aims to achieve universal education for all students yet at the same time contain regional ethnic resistance against the ruling Communist government and maintain national unity. AFP PHOTO/Frederic J. BROWN

Xitay tajawuzchiliri, tibet, uyghur we mongghullargha qaratqan mustemlike siyasiti ichide, ichki mongghulni mustemlike qilish usulini pütün xitaygha ülge dep qaraydu. Chünki xitay tajawuzchiliri, ichki mongghuldiki tebi’iy yaylaqlarni weyran qilish arqiliq, ichki mongghulda intayin xeterlik muhit bulghinishi keltürüp chiqirish bedilige, sansizlighan xitay aqqunlirini ichki mongghulgha yötkep chiqishta muweppeqiyet qazan’ghan. Hazir ichki mongghuldiki herqaysi sheherlerde aran 17% mongghul qalghan 83% nopus xitay ikenliki melum. Téxi ichki mongghulning kökxot shehiride mongghul nopusi aran 10% ge chüshüp qalghan.

5-féwral ghulja inqilabining qehriman shéhitliridin, abduxélil abdumijit, tursun seley, abdusalam qarim, ibrahim isma’il, abduweli ababekri we biz igileshke muweppeq bolalmighan, nurghunlighan qehriman uyghur shéhitlirini, mana mushu söyümlük uyghur mehelliliri yétishtürgen. Xitay tajawuzchiliri ularning arqisidin térrorchi dep qoghlap kelgende, xuddi yériling téshimdek yérilip ularni öz qoynigha alghan. 1998-yili 26-iyun uchun toqunushida shéhit bolghan, uyghur xelqining pexirlik oghlani qehriman shéhit tursun seleyni eyni chaghda uyghur mehellilirining qandaq qoynigha alghanliqi ghulja xelqige sir emes.

Muweppeqiyet insan’gha köp nersiler ögitilmesliki mumkin. Emma meghlubiyet köp nersiler ögitidu. Gerche 5-féwral ghulja inqilabini xitay tajawuzchiliri derijidin tashqiri herbiy küchi arqiliq meghlup qilghan bolsimu emma bu inqilab élip kelgen achchiq tejribe sawaqlar menggü ölmeydu.

Ghulja mehelliliri, 5-féwral ghulja inqilabidin ibaret milliy, dini we rohi oyghinish herikitini berpa qilghan yiltiz. Men kim? Dégen so’al astida öz-özini izdesh, öz-özini silkish, rohini yétildürgen meshhur meshrep pa’aliyiti ene shu ghulja mehelliliride tughulghan, tawlan’ghan we partlighan.

1997-yili yüz bergen 5-féwral ghulja inqilabidin kéyin xitay hökümiti, ghulja shehiride xitaylar rayoni we uyghurlar rayoni deydighan 2 rayon berpa qilish ishini muweppeqiyetlik ishqa ashurdi. Uyghur xelqi ghulja sheher qizil bayraq soda sariyining yuqirisini yeni xitaylar olturaqlashqan échiwétish rayonlirini yawropa, qizil bayraq soda sariyining töwen teripi yeni uyghurlar topliship olturaqlashqan rayonlarni bolsa asiya qitesi dep teriplidi.

Xitay tereqqiyat rayoni sheherchisi berpa qilish nami bilen nurghunlighan uyghur mehellilirini buzup chéqip xani weyran qilish bilen birlikte, ghulja shehirige köchmen yötkesh ishini yandash élip bardi. Bundin 20 yil awwal yeni 5-féwral ghulja inqilabi yüz bergen mezgillerde, ghulja shehirining omumi nopusi 300 ming bolghan bolsa hazir bir qatlinip 600 minggha yetken. Xitay da’iriliri ghulja shehirining omumi nopusini bir milyon’gha yetküzüsh pilanini tüzmekte.

Xitay hökümiti, sheher tereqqiyat rayoni qurush, ichkiri ölkilerdin köplep köchmen yötkesh qatarliq usullar bilen, uyghur milliy kimlikining mustehkem qorghini hésablan’ghan uyghur mehellilirini buzup tashlash nishanigha yétish qedimini nahayiti tézletkinige qarimay, özlirining bu ishliridin yene memnuniyet hés qilmidi. We yéqinda uyghurlar topliship olturaqlashqan kocha, bazar we restilerni tarqaqlashturush siyasitini yolgha qoyup, uyghurlarning eneniwi qol hünerwenchilik senitining makani bolghan, ghulja sheher gelentir, ghulja sheher teshlepki baziri, ghulja sheher xitay baziri qatarliq bazar restilerdiki, kona uyghur soda tijaretchiliri we qol hünerwen ustilirinimu tarqaqlashturup xitaylar bilen arilash soda tijaret qilishqa qistighan.

Shuning bilen bir waqitta ghulja sheher xitay baziri, gelentir we teshlepki qatarliq qedimi soda bazarlirini chéqip tashlap, zamaniwi soda saraylirini berpa qilish, sheher qurulushi tereqqiyatini ilgiri sürüsh qatarliq bahane sewebler bilen, uyghur soda tijaretchilirini xitaylar bilen arilashturuwetken.

Kanadaliq yazghuchi robertning «bulutlardin halqighan tulpar» namliq kitabida, yéngi tereqqiyat rayoni berpa qilish bahaniside xitay hökümitining qedimi qeshqer shehirini xaniweyran we qiliwatqanliqigha alahide yer bérilgen.

2005-yili ghuljida yüz bergen 5-féwral ghulja inqilabi, 2009-yili ürümchide yüz bergen 5-iyul ürümchi weqesi we undin bashqa qeshqer, xoten qatarliq barliq sheherlerde yüz bergen xitay hökümitige bolghan naraziliq heriketliri we bu heriketlerning qanliq basturulushi netijiside, uyghur xelqi bilen xitaylar otturisidiki chek chégra pütünley ayrilghan.

Buning bilen xitay hökümitide uyghur mehelliliridin ensiresh héssiyati téximu hessilep ashqan.

Xitaylar uyghur mehellilirining, uyghur milliy kimlikining mustehkem qorghini ikenlikini, uyghur mehellilirini bitchit qilip pachaqlap tashlimay turup, uyghurlarni assimilyatsiye qilish nishanigha yetkili bolmaydighanliqini hés qilghan.

Ürümchi sheherlik hökümet 2017-yili 7-ayning 6-küni arilash olturaqlashqanlarni mukapatlash we étibar bérish siyasiti namliq höjjet tarqatqan. Bu siyaset boyiche bolghanda choqum uyghurlar bilen xitaylar mejburiy rewishte arilash olturaqlishidighan bolup, bu siyaset yerlikte yürgüzülgen shara’it astida, qisqighine 10 we 15 yil ichide ürümchini merkez qilghan, barliq sherqi türkistan sheherliride uyghur mehellisi dégen bir nerse mewjut bolmasliqi mumkin.

Xitay da’iriliri, uyghur mehellilirini xaniweyran qilish, sherqi türkistanda xas uyghurlar berpa qilghan uyghur mehellilirini közdin tézrek yoqitish üchün, ürümchi shehiride, hökümetning tarqaqlashturup olturaqlashturush siyasitige yéqindin maslashqan uyghur largha 80 ming yü’en mukapat puli bérish tüzümini yolgha qoyghan. Ürümchining tengritagh we saybagh rayonliridiki uyghurlarni sheherning gherbi qismigha, yeni xitay ahaliliri köp bolghan yéngi sheher rayoni, yuqiri tereqqiyat rayoni, tudungxaba rayoni we midung rayonlirigha tarqaqlashturup olturaqlashturushqa bashlighan. Meqset uyghurlarning néme qiliwatqanliqini téximu yéqindin nazaret qilip turush.

Tarqaqlashturup olturaqlashturush belgilimisining rohigha asaslan’ghanda, bu belgilime boyiche öy sétiwalghan xitay yaki uyghur bolsun choqum shu rayonda 10 yilghiche olturushi kérek. Eger satmaqchi bolsa, choqum xitay-xitaygha, uyghur-uyghurgha sétishi kérek. Bu siyaset boyiche bolghanda bir olturaq bina 50% aka millet xitaydin, qalghan 50% ti bashqa milletlerdin terkib tapqan bolushi kérek. Bu belgilimide alahide közge chéliqidighini 3 ewlad siyasiy jinayet ötküzmigen bolush dégendin ibaret bolup buning nuqtiliq halda uyghurlargha qaritiliwatqanliqi éniq. Chünki xitaylarning wetinimizge aqqun bolup kélish tarixida 3 ewlad bolush musapisini bésip ötken xitaylar nahayiti az. Bu belgilimide yene, 3 ewlad siyasiy jinayet ötküzmigen dégen maddini alahide kirgüzüsh arqiliq xitay puqralirining bixeterliki we tinch amanliqini alahide qoghdash meqset qilin’ghan bolup buningdin uyghur xelqining yenila 2-sinip mu’amilisige uchrawatqanliqini körüwalmaq tes emes. Chünki türmiliri uyghur siyasiy mehbusliri bilen tolup ketken xitay jemiyitide, siyasiy jinayet ötküzüsh dégenning nuqtiliq halda uyghurlargha qaritilidighanliqi hemmige tonush bir logika.

Xitay sherqi türkistanni mustemlike qilghan az kem 70 yil jeryanida, uyghur xelqini assimilyatsiye qilish jehette muweppeqiyet qazinalmay keldi.

Gerche xitay hökümiti, uyghurlarni tarqaqlashturup olturaqlashturush siyasitini, atalmish sheher tereqqiyat rayoni berpa qilish, zamaniwi kocha bazar berpa qilish qatarliq chirayliq namlar astida élip bériwatqan assimilyatsiye siyasitining dawami dep qarawatqan bolsimu emma bu siyasetni emeliylishishi xitay üchün bir müshkül mesile bolushi mumkin.

Mesilen xitay bu siyasetni ürümchide 80 ming yü’en mukapat pulidin ibaret yemchük tashlash usuli bilen melum derijide emelge ashuralidi dégen teqdirdimu, qeshqer, xoten, aqsu, ghulja qatarliq sheherlerde emelge ashurushi mumkin emes. Chünki wetenning ichki weziyiti yeni siyasiy we ijtima’iy ehwalidin toluq xewerdar kishiler yaxshi biliduki, bu sheherlerde hélighu uyghurlarning 3 ewlad siyasiy arqa körünüshi tekshürülidiken, hetta 10 ewlad tekshürülgen teqdirdimu xitaylar, uyghurlar bilen bilen bir rayonda qoshna bolup olturushtin özlirige wehime hés qilishidu. Éniqki bu tarqaqlashturup olturaqlashturush siyasiti uyghur sheherliride yenila aqmaydu. Bu siyasetni buzghuchilar xitaylar bolidu.

Men yuqiridiki bu keskin jümlilerni, 5-féwral ghulja inqilabi yüz bergen chaghdiki ghulja weziyitini tehlil qilish arqiliq jezmleshtürmektimen.

1997-yili ghulja 5- féwral inqilabi yüz bergende, ghulja shehiride, ili herbiy rayoni, ili oblastliq zorawanliqning aldini élish qoralliq etriti, ili alahide weqelerge qarshi turush qoralliq saqchi etriti, bingtu’en herbiy qismi, 8667 qisim qatarliq 100 mingdin artuq éghir tiptiki qorallar bilen qorallan’ghan herbiy qisim, 300 ming nopusi bar kichikkine xilwet sheher ghuljini qorshawgha alghan idi. Bu qoralliq qisimlarning asasliq wezipisi xitay puqralirini uyghurlardin hezer eylesh, qoghdash we mudapi’e qilish idi. Shundaq bolushigha qarimay öy makanini tashlap ichkirige kétish üchün ghulja sheherlik dashiji’e qatnash békitige kélip yétiwalghan xitaylar ürümchige qatnaydighan uzun yolluq qatnash qistangchiliqi peyda qilghan idi.

Bu xil ehwal 1974-yaki 1975-yilliridimu hasil bolghanliqi sözlinidu. Yeni eyni yillarda, sowét ittipaqi bomba tashlaydiken dégen gep-soz chöchekler tarqalghan, xendek kolash ewj alghan yillarda, xitaylarning qorqup ichkirige qéchish hadisisi yüz bergen bolup, uzun yolluq qatnash béketliri, qanche künlep uzun öchiretlerde turup ketken xitaylar bilen aldirash bolghan iken.

Oghrining yüriki pok-pok bolidu her jayda, her makanda
Xitay yene bir tereptin, ichkiri ölkilerdin xitaygha köchmen chaqiriwatidu, uyghur qizlirini xitay yigitlirige öylinishke qistawatidu.

Bularning hemmisini pul bilen sétiwalmaqchi boluwatidu yeni insanlarning yashash adetlirini, ar nomusi we ghururini öz ichige alghan barliq shexsi héssiyatlirini yalt-yult qilidighan tawar durdunlar bilen yögimekchi boluwatidu. Emma bir nuqtigha sel qarawatidu rohi mesililerge siyasiy tedbirlerning kar qilmaydighanliqidin ibaret bir heqiqetke sel qarawatidu. Bu nuqta uyghurlar üchünla emes belki xitay xelqi üchünmu shundaq. Qoshmaq tughqan siyasiy deydighan süniy tughqandarchiliq, mejburiy bir binada qoshna qilish siyasiti, shundaqla doqmush doqmushtiki tekshürüsh chariliri wahakazalar, bir insan bolush süpiti bilen haman bir kün xitaylarnimu bi’aram qilidighan bir bash aghriqigha aylinishi we ale shehiringni deydighan nuqtigha ekélishi mumkin.

Uyghur mehelliliri, uyghur ana tili, uyghur medeniyiti, uyghur örüp adetliri, uyghur meshrepliri we uyghur xelq naxshilirini tughqan we altun böshükide elleylep yétishtürgen mustehkem qorghan.

Eger mehellilirimiz qoldin ketse hemme némimiz qoldin kétidu.

2000-yillardin kèyin ghulja shehrige sheher bashlighi bolup kelgen ja’o ba’o xu’a isimlik bir xitay, ghulja shehridiki mehellilerni buzup chèqish ishini nahayiti rehimsizlerche èlip barghan xitay mustemlike rehberlirining biri bolup, u ghulja shehridiki muhim rayunlarni ichkiri ölkilerdin xèridar chaqirip sètishta dang chiqarghan. U ghulja shehrige yèqin bolushtek ewzelliklirige ige xenbing yèzisi bilen, sherqmehellisidiki uyghur ahalilirining öylirini mejburi erzan bahada sètiwèlishni siyasetleshtürgen.

2010-yili erkin asiya radi’osi uyghur bölümige öz shikayitini anglatqan ghulja sheher xenbing yèzisiliq merziyem isimlik bir ayal, qoru jayining ja’o ba’o hu’a teripidin nahayiti erzan bahada mejburi tartiwèliniwatqanlighi heqqide shikayet qilghan. Uning èytip bèrishiche, uning qoru jayini tartiwèlish üchün xitay da’irliri qoralliq kelgen. Ularning elpazi bek yaman bolup, sella chataq chiqsa ètip tashlaydighandek ehwalda bolghan.merziyem xanim yene ehwal bildürüp, mejburi tartiwèlishni ijra qilghuchilarning, yanfun ishlitishni qet’i chekligenligini, yanfun arqiliq resimge tartish we yaki tèlifunda sözlishish men’i qilin’ghanlighini sözlep bergen. Dimekki xitay da’irliri özlirining , uyghur xelqining öy makanlirini mejburi tartiwèlip uyghurlarning milli kimliğini saxlaydighan birdin bir qorghini hèsaplan’ghan mehellilirini xaniweyran qiliwatqanlighidin ibaret bu jinayi qilmishini dunyaning bilip qèlishidin endishe qilghan. Merziyem xanim yene muxbirgha yighlap turup, özining qoru jayini erzan bahada hökümetke satmaydighanlighini bildürüp qarshiliq körsetkende, xitay qoralliq küchlirining uninggha intayin qopalliq qilghanlighini we uni tepkenligini bildurgen.

Wetinimizge bèrip, nurghunlighan sheherlerni közdin kechürüsh jeryanida,bulutlardin halqighan tulpar namliq kitapni yazghan robèrt uyghurlarning nowette nime qilishi kèrekligi heqqide toxtulup mundaq deydu:

”ughurlar hitayning ichki qismida özliri duchar boluwatqan ehwallarni dunyagha téximu yaxshi tonutush we anglitish üchün,yalghuz hökümetler we siyasi’onlarghila anglitish bilen cheklinip qalmastin, belki adettyiki xelqlerge anglitish xizmitigimu alahide ahmiyet bérishi,yeni uyghur bolmighan bashqa étnik milletlerning teshkilatliri bilen bolghan dostluq we alaqini kücheytishi,köplep dost tutushqa ehmiyet bérishi kérek. Meyli amérka, kanada we yawrupada turuwatqan uyghurlar bolsun yerlik xelqler bilen bolghan dostluq we hemkarliqqa ehmiyet bérishi uyghur dawasini dunyagha tonutushta muhim ehmiyetke ige.

Undin bashqa uyghurlar xitayning ichki qismidiki exwallargha köngül bölüdighan xelqaradiki herxil teshkilatlar we gurpilar bilen bolghan alaqini kücheytishi intayin muhim. Uyghurlar yene xelqaradiki ishchilarning hoquq menpe’etini qoghdaydighan teshkilatlar bilen bolghan alaqini kücheytip,ulargha xitay hökümitining éshinchi emgek küchlirini ichkiri ölkilerge yötkesh banisida, éghir emgek we erzan bahada yash qiz yigitlerni ata-aniliridin ayrip til, örip adet qatarliqlar hichqandaq oxshimaydighan xitayning ichkiri ölkilirige yötkep ishlitiwatqanlighidek pakitlarni qerellik halda yollap turush kérek“.

 

http://www.uyghurnet.org/ug

Yéngisar Topluqtiki Keng Kölemlik Tutqunda 100 ge Yéqin Kent Kadiri Jazalanghan

Türmige élip kiriliwatqan uyghur siyasiy mehbuslar.

Türmige élip kiriliwatqan uyghur siyasiy mehbuslar.

 Social Media

Yéngisardiki bu yilliq qattiq zerbide kent kadirliri we partiye ezalirimu nishandin chette qalalmighan.

Melum bolushiche keng kölemlik tutqun we éghir késim dawam qiliwatqan yéngisar nahiyeside kent we mehelle kadirlirimu qattiq zerbe nishanining sirtida qalalmighan. Bir saqchi xadimining ashkarilishiche, topluq yézisidin tutulghan 2000 din artuq kishining 100 ge yéqini kent we mehelle kadiri؛ bularning ichidin öteng kentidin tutulghan 10 neper kadir yéqinda 10 yilliqtin késilgen.

Melum bolushiche, uyghur rayonida 2014-Yilidin bashlap shiddetlengen we kéngeygen qattiq zerbe dolquni deslepki ikki yilda nuqtiliq we gumanliq kishilerni nishanlighan bolsa, bu yilgha kelgende nishan dairisi yene bir derije kéngeygen. «Ikki yüzlimichilik» ke qarshi turush namidiki bu kéngiyish, yéngisarning topluq yéza öteng kentide yüzge yéqin kent we mehelle kadirini türmige tashlighan.

Xitay 2014-Yili tarqatqan «diniy esebiylikning 75 xil alamiti» namliq qollanmida, kent kadirlirigha we partiye ezalirigha salam bermeslik, ularni chetke qéqishmu diniy esebiylikning alamiti dep sanighan. Yeni bu qollanmida kent kadirliri bilen partiye ezaliri xitaygha sadiq kishiler qatarigha tizilghan we atalmish «üch xil küch» lerning hujumidin qoghdalghan idi. Emma bu yilgha kelgende, kent kadirliri bilen partiye ezalirining adettiki diqqetsizliklirimu jinayi jawabkarliqqa tartilghan. Öteng kentide 10 nechche kadir peqet téléfondin mesile chiqqanliqi üchünla tutulghan we késiwétilgen.

Melum bolushiche, téléfoni toxtap qélish nöwette uyghur rayonida nurghun kishilerni endishige séliwatqan, ulargha bir pishkelchilik we palaketchiliktin isharet bériwatqan bir hadise. Xitay hakimiyitige qesem ichip sadaqet bildürgen kompartiye ezalirimu bu endishidin xaliy emes. Ashkarilinishiche, peyziwatning shaptul yézisidiki kompartiye ezasi yasin tursun, téléfoni toxtitilghandin kéyin tutulghan we 7 yilliq késilgen.

Yopurghuluq bir amanliq mudirining bayan qilishiche, téléfongha tamdin atlash détallirining qachilinishi yaki cheklengen mezmundiki ün-Sin matériyallirining téléfonda körülüshi téléfonning shu zaman toxtitilishigha seweb bolidu. Téléfon toxtighandin kéyin téléfon igisi saqchixanigha chaqirtilidu؛ bezi ahalilerning déyishiche, jazalinish-Jazalanmasliq, atalmish xataliqning qesten yaki diqqetsizliktin bolushi bilen munasiwetsiz؛ u peqet saqchi xadimi yaki sotchining keypi we peylige munasiwetlik.

Yéngisar topluqning öteng kentidiki téléfoni toxtighandin kéyin, térrorluq we zorawanliq heriketlirige qiziqish we hewes qilish gumani bilen tutulghan we dölet bixeterlikige tehdit shekillendürüsh bilen jazalanghan 10 neper kadir ichide kent sékrétari, amanliq mudiri, boghaltiri we mehelle bashliqliridin bashqa yene ayallar mudirimu bar. Ayallar mudiri aynisa sopi téléfonini atalmish «qanunsiz qollanghanliqi» üchün nöwette türmide jaza mudditini ötimekte.

Xitay dairiliri uyghur aptonom rayonida özliri élip bériwatqan qattiq zerbe herikitining nishanining peqetla térrorchilar ikenlikini, muhajirettiki uyghur paaliyetchiliri bolsa, nishanning bir pütün uyghur milliti ikenlikini ilgiri sürüshmekte.(Shöhret Hoshur)

Uyghur Élidiki Qamal we Teqib Rayondiki Hemme Xelq Üchün Oxshashla Xeterlik

Uyghur élida kocha, mehelle we meschitlerni közitish üchün bulung puchqaqlargha ornitilghan közitish apparatlirining biri.

Uyghur élida kocha, mehelle we meschitlerni közitish üchün bulung puchqaqlargha ornitilghan közitish apparatlirining biri.

 AFP

Xitay hökümiti uyghur élidiki teqib we qamalni yenimu kücheytish üchün pen-Téxnikining barliq imkanlirini ishqa séliwatqanliqi melum. Közetküchiler, xitay hökümitining bu xil yuqiri bésimliq tedbirliri yalghuz rayondiki uyghurlarghila emes, belki xitaylarghimu bésim peyda qiliwatqanliqini ilgiri sürmekte.

Xitay hökümitining uyghur élide yuqiri téxnikiliq qamal sistémilirini qollinip, uni rayondiki ahalilerni teqib qilish, kontrol qilish, ularning pikir erkinlikini cheklesh üchün ishlitiwatqanliqi közetküchilerning küchlük diqqitini qozghimaqta. Amérikidiki «uyghur kishilik hoquq qurulushi» 5-Séntebir küni élan qilghan bir doklatida, xitay hökümitining uyghur élini yuqiri téxnikiliq qamal sistémisi we ularning türlirini sinaq qilidighan «sinaq meydani» gha aylanduruwalghanliqi bildürülgen.

Bu yil awghustta ürümchidiki xelqaraliq yermenke merkizide «4-Nöwetlik xitay yawru-Asiya bixeterlik körgezmisi» échighan. Uningda türlük yuqiri téxnikiliq üsküniler, bolupmu süzüklük derijisi intayin yuqiri bolghan bixeterlik kaméraliri, uchquchisiz ayropilan we mashina ademler körgezme qilinghan. «Uyghur kishilik hoquq qurulushi» ning doklatida körsitilishiche, ilgiri shénjin shehiride échilip kéliwatqan bu yermenke ornining nöwette uyghur éligha yötkilishi xitay hökümitining uyghur diyarini bu türdiki yuqiri pen-Téxnikiliq qamal sistémisini sinaq qilidighan meydangha aylanduruwatqanliqining netijisi iken.

Doklatta xitay hökümitining uyghur élidiki kontrolluqni kücheytish üchün yuqiridikilerdin sirt yene kishilerning téléfonliridiki atalmish ziyanliq uchurlarni tazilaydighan eplerni yasap chiqip, her bir kishidin bu epni téléfonigha chüshürüshni telep qilghanliqi ilgiri sürülgen. Shuning bilen bir waqitta yene aptomobillargha signal bérish sistémisi orunlashturghanliqini, 2016-Yili saqchi organliri, qatnash-Transport, sot we banka qatarliq 40 tin artuq orunning puqralar heqqidiki uchurlarni öz ara ortaqlishidighan zor bir sistéma shekillendürüsh üchün kélishkenliki bayan qilinghan.

Yéqinda uyghur aptonom rayonluq maliye nazaritining naziri wen xeychünning aldinqi yérim yilliq xamchot heqqide bergen doklatida, xitay dairilirining nöwette «bixeterlik kaméralirini torlashturush, öz-Ara uchur yetküzüsh supisi qurulushi» dep atiliwatqan bir téxnika qurulushigha zor meblegh séliniwatqanliqi melum boldi. «Uyghur kishilik hoquq qurulushi» ning doklatida, yuqirida tilgha élinghan siysiy kontrolluq üchün qolliniliwatqan yuqiri téxnika türlirining uyghur qatarliq yerlik milletlerning heq-Hoquqlirigha éghir tehdit élip kelgenliki bildürülgen.

Gérmaniyediki «yawropa medeniyiti we ilahiyetshunasliq instituti» ning oqutquchisi doktor adriyan zénz, uyghur élidiki bu xil teqib sistémisining sabiq sherqiy gérmaniye dewridiki yuqiri bésimliq teqib sistémisini eslitidighanliqini ilgiri sürdi we mundaq dédi:

«Uyghur élining weziyiti saqchi döliti tüzümi bilen idare qilinghan sabiq sherqiy gérmaniyege oxshap qalidu. Sabiq sherqiy gérmaniye hökümitimu kishilerni ‹bérlin témi› we shuningdek gherb chégraliridin uzaq tutush üchün ene shundaq xewpsizlik we teqib sistémilirini qurghan. Elwette, bu dölet üchünmu intayin éghir iqtisadiy yük idi. Uyghur élimu del shundaq boluwatidu. Uyghur élidiki kishiler sirtqa chiqip kétishni arzu qilidu. Menche peqetla uyghurlar emes, xitaylarmu u yerdin kétishni arzu qilidu. Hetta nechche ewladtin béri uyghur élide yashap kéliwatqan xitaylarmu kétishni arzu qilidu. Menche, bundaq qattiq bixeterlik tedbirliri uyghurlarning jemiyetke bolghan yatlishishini keltürüp chiqiridu, shuning bilen birge yene bu yerdiki xitaylardimu oxshash weziyet shekillendüridu. Menche bu intayin xeterlik ehwal.»

Halbuki, közetküchilerning yuqiriqidek agahlandurushining eksiche, xitay hökümiti uyghur élide bu xil yuqiri téxnikiliq teqib türlirini dawamliq tereqqiy qildurushni telep qilmaqta. Xitay kompartiyisi merkizi komitéti siyasiy byurosining ezasi, siyasiy-Qanun komitétining sékrétari ming jyenju yéqinda ürümchide ziyarette bolghanda, uyghur élida muqimliqqa kapaletlik qilip, térrorluqqa qarshi turushta siyasiy sapani östürgendin bashqa, yéngi téxnikilardin paydilinish we istixbarat sahesidiki yéngi téxnikilarni omumlashturushning ehmiyitini tekitligen idi.

«Uyghur kishilik hoquq qurulushi» tetqiqatchisi hénriy shajéwski sözide, bixeterlik tedbirlirining xitayning «bir yol, bir belwagh» istratégiyisige kapaletlik qilish üchün éliniwatqanliqi mölcherliniwatqan bolsimu, emma buning toghra bir tedbir emeslikini eskertti. U mundaq dédi: «bezi közetküchiler, xitay uyghur élidiki bixeterlik tedbirlirini ‹bir belwagh, bir yol› istratégiyisining bixeterlikini kapaletke ige qilish üchün qildi, dep qaraydu. Chünki uyghur éli xitayning ‹bir belwagh, bir yol› istratégiyisining muhim bir tügini, shundaqla yawru-Asiyagha échilidighan derwazisi. Emma bu yerdiki mesile, xitayning ‹bir belwagh, bir yol› istratégiyisini kapaletke ige qilishtiki wasitisi bixeterlik tedbirliri bolmasliqi kérek. Uyghurlar rayonda iqtisadiy, siyasiy we salahiyet jehettimu tengsiz muamilige uchrawatqan bir sharaitta, xitay éliwatqan bundaq tedbirler mesilige toghra jawab bolalamdu? menche bu rayondiki uyghurlarning naraziliqini tügitishning charisi emes. Bu, uyghur éli üchünla emes, belki xitayning muqimliqini qoghdash üchünmu toghra bir usul emes.»

Adriyan zénz ependi uyghur élide éliniwatqan bixeterlik tedbirlirining uyghur élidiki iqtisadiy tereqqiyat üchünmu zor bir tosalghuluqini bildürdi. U mundaq dédi:«derweqe, bu rayonni éghir derijide maliye yardimige béqindurush istratégiyisi. Chünki bundaq tedbirler iqtisad üchünmu paydisiz. Chünki bundaq tedbirler sewebidin tijaretke kétidighan waqit uziraydu. Uyghur élida bir shirket achqanda bixeterlik kamérasi, bixeterlik qoghdighuchi dégendek nurghun bixeterlik shertliri bolghanliqi üchün bir shirketni échish üchün kétidighan maliye ösüp kétidu. Emgek küchlirining yötkilishini qiyinlashturidu. Shunga bu aqiwette xitayning özige maliye yüki peyda qilidu. Elwette xitay buninggha razi bolghan muddetkiche hökümetke héchnéme bolmasliqi mumkin, emma u yerdiki xelq üchün bolsa hayat chidighusiz derijige yétip qalidu.»

CHINA AND THE SOVIET UNION IN XINJIANG, 1934-1949

CHINA AND THE SOVIET UNION IN XINJIANG, 1934-1949

This collection of Soviet records documents the political and military turmoil in Xinjiang in the 1930s and 1940s. The records provide considerable details on the insurrection led by Ma Zhongying, Governor Sheng Shicai’s relationship with Stalin, the establishment of the East Turkestan Republic (1944-1949) in northern Xinjiang, and Sino-Soviet relations in Xinjiang, among other topics. (Photo: Governor of Xinjiang Sheng Shicai, date unknown.)

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  • JUNE, 1934

    Letter of Governor Shicai Sheng to Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov

    Governor Shicai Sheng expresses his firm belief in Communism, his desire to overthrow the Nanjing Government and construct a Communist state in its place, and the need to establish a Communist Party branch in Xinjiang. Emphasizing his long study of Marxist theory, he requests that Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov allow him to join the Communist Party.

  • JULY 27, 1934

    Letter from Stalin to Cde. G. Apresov, Consul General in Urumqi

    Stalin compares Sheng Shicai, Governor of Xinjiang, to “a provocateur or an hopeless ‘leftist’.”

  • JULY 27, 1934

    Letter from Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov to Governor Sheng Shicai

    While expressing appreciate for Sheng’s role in pacifying Xinjiang and expressing their firm trust in him, Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov deny his request to join the Communist Party and express their disagreement with the opinions he expressed in his earlier letter. Citing Xinjiang’s economic backwardness, they condemn the rapid implementation of Communism in Xinjiang as a “ludicrous” idea and also advise against overthrowing the Nanjing government.

  • NOVEMBER 01, 1934

    Letter from Governer Shicai Sheng to Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov

    Responding to Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov’s letter of 27 July, Sheng expresses his agreement with their assertions about Xinjiang’s unsuitability for Communist rule and the inadvisability of overthrowing the Nanjing government. Accepting that he cannot become a member of the Communist Party at this time, Sheng expresses his gratitude for the Soviet assistance he has received and requests that he and Consul General Apresov be permitted to travel to Moscow.

  • MARCH 19, 1935

    Politburo Decision of 19 March 1935 concerning Xinjiang

    The Politburo transfers NKVD members currently working in Eastern Siberia and Central Asia to Xinjiang.

  • MARCH 22, 1935

    The Distribution of the Sovsin’torg Trade Loan

    A breakdown of how a Soviet loan to Xinjiang will be utilized.

  • MARCH 22, 1935

    Memorandum Concerning Cde. Kaganovich’s Proposals for Xinjiang

    The Politburo approves Comrade Kaganovich’s proposals for further action in Xinjiang.

  • MARCH 22, 1935

    VKP(b) CC Politburo Decree concerning Xinjiang

    A Central Committee report on Soviet-Xinjiang trrade and the economy in Xinjiang more generally.

  • JULY 16, 1935

    Excerpt on Xinjiang from Minutes No. 42 of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The Politburo orders an increase in the number of Soviet trade officials in Kumul and Aksu.

  • AUGUST 05, 1935

    Concerning the Release of Money to the NKVD

    The CPSU Politburo releases 1.2 million rubles to support individuals arriving in the Soviet Union from Xinjiang.

  • SEPTEMBER 13, 1935

    Politburo Decisions of 13 September 1935 Concerning Xinjiang

    The Politburo directs manpower and funds to support the Xinjiang army and accepts the text of an agreement between the Mongolian People’s Republic and Manchukuo on the issue of a border commission.

  • SEPTEMBER 29, 1935

    Politburo Decisions of 29 September 1935 Concerning Xinjiang

    The Politburo prohibits NKVD officers in Xinjiang from deviating from the approved political line and proposes developing oil near the border under the guise of Xinjiang production.

  • OCTOBER 01, 1935

    Concerning the Sale of Soviet Military Equipment to the Xinjiang Government

    The Politburo orders military equipment, including U-2 aircraft, small arms, and clothing, from NKO stocks to be sold to the Xinjiang government.

  • OCTOBER 03, 1935

    Concerning Relations with the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

    The Politburo orders the NKVD to seek, with the cooperation of Ma Zhongying, commander of the 36th Division of the National Revolutionary Army, the departure of the NRA division commanders most hostile to the Xinjiang government. The Politburo also instructs the NKVT and NKID to commence trade with the 36th Division immediately.

  • NOVEMBER 15, 1935

    Concerning Cde. Apresov’s Gifts to Leaders in Xinjiang

    The Politburo orders objects to be released to the disposition of Cde. Apresov, the General Consul in Urumqi, for distribution as gifts to government officials in Xinjiang.

  • 1936

    Telegram from Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov to G. Apresov, Consul General in Urumqi

    Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov express alarm about Shicai Sheng’s red corner and discussions about the possible Sovietization of Xinjiang, reported in an earlier telegram from G. Apresov. They reaffirm that the USSR has no territorial claims on China, denies any plans for the Sovietization of Xinjiang, and declares its firm support for China in its struggle of independence from Japan, Britain, and other imperialist countries.

  • FEBRUARY 07, 1936

    Concerning Negotiations with Ma Zhongying of the 36th Devision of the National Revolutionary Army

    The Politburo accepts Ma Zhongying’s proposal and recommends that the Urumqi government agree to appropriate concessions in peace talks with the 36th Division.

  • MARCH 17, 1936

    Concerning the Special Purpose Geological Expedition in Xinjiang

    The Politburo orders the NKTP Special Purpose Geological Expedition in Xinjiang to continue prospecting for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum, allocating rubles and workers to support their efforts.

  • MARCH 29, 1936

    Concerning the Maintenance of Peoples from Xinjiang

    The Politburo orders to release of over 1.2 million rubles to the NKVD to support the maintenance of peoples from Xinjiang.

  • JUNE 17, 1936

    Concerning Soviet Trade with Xinjiang

    The Politburo reduces the import plan for Xinjiang after a cattle plague and poor cotton harvest, while ordering the export plans to remain at their current level.

  • JULY 16, 1936

    On Soviet Trade Officials in Xinjiang

    The CPSU Politburo increases the number of Soviet trade officials in Xinjiang.

  • OCTOBER 04, 1936

    Letter from Sheng Shicai to Cde. V. M. Molotov

    Governor Shicai Sheng of Xinjiang praises the Soviet Union and expresses gratitude to Cde. V. M. Molotov for the “moral and material friendly aid” Xinjiang has received from the Soviet Union while expressing regret that he will be unable to accompany Apresov, the Consul General in Urumqi, on his visit to the Soviet Union.

  • FEBRUARY 16, 1937

    Concerning Soviet Geological Exploration Work in Xinjiang

    The Politburo orders that the Special Expedition of the NKTP continue its work in the territory of Xinjiang, namely exploring and mining in the Surtassky deposit and the Ili [Yili] District, through 1937.

  • APRIL 04, 1937

    Concerning a Peace Settlement in Kashgar

    The Politburo orders both the governor of Kashgar and Cde. Smirnov to appeal to Mamut to resolve his disputes with the Urumqi government peacefully. In the event that Mamut begins conducting military opeartions against the Urumqi government, the Politburo orders Cdes. Frinovsky and Uritsky to prepare a plan of military measures against the Uighur division.

  • APRIL 08, 1937

    Concerning Military Operations in Xinjiang

    The Soviet Politburo directs Cde. Frinovsky to suggest that division commander Ma Hushan of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army intercept Mamut and disarm him.

  • APRIL 19, 1937

    Concerning Actions to be Taken Against the Command of the 6th Division of the NRA

    Noting that the command staff of the 6th Division of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army is hostile to the Urumqi government, the Politburo orders that the units be disarmed and the command staff arrested. The Politburo also orders that a group of energetic Chinese and Uighurs from Kashgar be sent to organize a government in Yarkant.

  • MAY 17, 1937

    Concerning Support for Chinese Troops in Kashgaria

    The Politburo orders Soviet aircraft, armored cars, and pilots be sent to assist the Chinese command in suppressing the rebels in Kashgaria.

  • MAY 28, 1937

    Concerning Song Ziwen’s Travel

    The Politburo recommends that the governor of Xinjiang permit Song Ziwen to travel to Urumqi.

  • JUNE 14, 1937

    Concerning the 36th Division of the NRA’s Appeals to the Soviet Government

    In response to Ma Hushan’s (commander of the 36th Division of the NRA) request for Soviet assistance in Xinjiang and the release of Ma Zhongying from the Soviet Union, the Politburo resolves that it will provide assistance only after the leadership of the 36th Division concludes an agreement with the Xinjiang government and establishes peace in the south of Xinjiang.

  • JULY 29, 1937

    Concerning Soviet Military Operations in Xinjiang

    The Politburo orders two regiments be sent into Xinjiang to prevent the advance of the 36th Division. It also orders that Ma Zhongying continue to be detained and recommends that the governor of Xinjiang avoid an agreement with Ma Hushan.

  • SEPTEMBER 22, 1937

    Concerning Travel of the Civil Air Fleet to Xinjiang

    The Politburo orders the Civil Air Fleet to send a transport aircraft to make several trips between Urumqi and Kashgar in coordination with the NKID and NKVD.

  • SEPTEMBER 24, 1937

    Concerning Alleged Plots Against Governor Sheng Shicai

    The Politburo decides to send an experienced investigator to investigate an alleged plot against Sheng Shicai, the governor of Xinjiang.

  • NOVEMBER 10, 1937

    Letter from Governor Sheng Shicai to Cde. V. M. Molotov

    Sheng Shicai expresses gratitude to Cde. V. M. Molotov for Soviet assistance with eliminating the 36th Division of the NRA from the South of Xinjiang and combating a Trotskyist plot in Xinjiang. He requests Molotov’s assistance with “implementing the policy of the six principles” in Xinjiang and turning it into a model province.

  • JANUARY 09, 1938

    Concerning Troop Movements through Xinjiang

    The Politburo recommends that Sheng Shicai advise Jiang Jieshi to permit the regiment currently stationed in Erlizihe to proceed to its designated location.

  • JANUARY 10, 1938

    Concerning NKVD Operations in Xinjiang

    The Politburo orders the NKVD to deploy a reinforced cavalry regiment and an attached RKKA fighter squadron to the area of Hami, allocating additional tanks, automobiles, and gasoline trucks to support their operations. It also provides recommended changes to Shicai Sheng’s military policy in Xinjiang.

  • SEPTEMBER 02, 1938

    A Conversation Between Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov and the Governor Shicai Sheng which Occurred in the Kremlin on 2 September 1938

    Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov, and Governor Sheng discuss Xinjiang’s military, level of industrialization, and natural resources, as well as Governor Sheng’s strong desire to join the Communist Party.

  • JANUARY 04, 1939

    Translation of a Letter from Governor Shicai Sheng to Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov

    Governor Sheng Shicai expresses gratitude to Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov for the opportunity to visit Moscow. After reporting critical remarks made by Fang Lin against the Soviet Union and the Communist Party, Sheng Shicai requests that the All-Union Communist Party dispatch a politically experienced person to Urumqi to discuss Party training and asks that the Comintern order the Chinese Communist Party in Xinjiang to liquidate the Party organization.

  • JANUARY 10, 1939

    Concerning Soviet Troops in Xinjiang

    The Politburo transfers Soviet military units deployed in Xinjiang and supervision of the Xinjiang army to the control of the People’s Commissariat of Defense.

  • MARCH 14, 1940

    Concerning the Secret Cipher Unit of the USSR Consulate in Urumqi

    The Politburo directs the NKVD to permit the division of the combined secret cipher unit of the USSR Consulate General and Trade Mission in Urumqi into independent secret cipher units.

  • OCTOBER 26, 1940

    Excerpt on Xinjiang from Minutes No. 21 of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The Soviet Politburo charges Narkomtsvetmet with concluding a 50 year concession agreement for the right to explore and exploit mineral deposits in Xinjiang and establishes a Directorate of Concessions for Exploration, Prospecting, and Exploitation of the Deposits of Tin in Xinjiang.

  • MARCH 07, 1941

    Concerning the Sin’tszyanolovo Concession in Xinjiang

    The Soviet Politburo approves the Narkomtsvetmet’s 1941 work plan for the Sin’tszyanolovo concession and outlines the tasks related to the concession for which the NKVD, NKO, Civil Air Fleet, Narkomtsvetmet, and the Council of Ministers are respectively responsible.

  • MARCH 07, 1941

    Work Plan of the Narkomtsvetmet Sin’tszysnolovo Concession for 1941

    The Narkomtsvetmet (People’s Commissariat of Nonferrous Metallurgy) outlines the work plan for the Sin’tszyanolovo concession in 1941, including exploration work for tin and tungsten in the Bortala River basin and conducting a geological survey and prospecting for mineral deposits in the Altai, Kashgar, Ghulja, and Hotan districts.

  • APRIL 19, 1941

    Excerpt on Xinjiang from Minutes of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The Politburo issued 5.25 million rubles to support the NKO’s operations in the Mongolian People’s Republic and Xinjiang, the independent NKVD rifle battalion in Xinjiang, and the topographic detachment in Xinjiang until the end of 1941.

  • MARCH 20, 1942

    Concerning Signing of an Agreement with the Government of Xinjiang about the Operation of the Dushanzi Refinery

    The Politburo approves the establishment of a mixed Soviet-Xinjiang company to operate the Dushanzi Refinery and outlines the company’s management and funding structure.

  • MAY 04, 1942

    Excerpt from Operations Log of the Urumqi Military Hospital

    The record describes the fatal injuries suffered Sheng Shiqi, the Commander of the Mechanized Brigade of Xinjiang, and brother of Sheng Shicai.

  • MAY 10, 1942

    Letter from Governor Shicai Sheng to Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov

    Governor Sheng describes the investigation into Sheng Shiqi’s (the Commander of the Mechanized Brigade of Xinjiang) death, which revealed that Chen Xiuying (his wife) murdered him under pressure from Xiao Zuoxin, the assistant to the Director of the Urumqi office of the Native Corporation. He also reports that Kruglov, Soviet advisor for trade matters, intentionally disrupted trade between the Soviet Union and Xinjiang because of the Xinjiang government’s alleged anti-Soviet attitude.

  • JULY 03, 1942

    Letter from Cde. V. M. Molotov to Governor Shicai Sheng

    Molotov rejects all the accusations leveled against Cdes. Bakulin, Rakov, and other senior Soviet officials in Governor Sheng’s earlier letter as completely unfounded and criticizes his repression of senior figures in the Xinjiang government. Molotov also expresses his belief that “secret agents of an imperialist power hostile to China” have made Sheng their tool.

  • JULY 07, 1942

    Letter to the Soviet Ambassador in Chongqing

    At the instruction of the Soviet government and Cde. Stalin personally, the Soviet ambassador to China is instructed to inform Chiang Kai-shek of the worrying views expressed by Shicai Sheng in his recent letter to Stalin, Voroshilov, and Molotov and present him with the text of Molotov’s reply.

  • MAY 04, 1943

    Excerpt on Xinjiang from Minutes No. 40 of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The CPSU Central Committee announces that it “cannot tolerate such provocative activity” of Xinjiang Governor Sheng Shicai and that it will provide support to rebels “in their struggle against the repressive colonialist policy of the Governor.”

  • JUNE 10, 1943

    Concerning a Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Central Asia and Kazakhstan

    The Politburo directs the NKVD to permit the organization of a Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.

  • 1944

    The Truth about the Events in Xinjiang

    An anonymous report on Soviet-Guomindang relations in Xinjiang, and political developments in Xinjiang since 1933.

  • JUNE 05, 1944

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    Record of Conversation with Cde. Lin Zuhan, Chairman of the Special Region

    Godunov reports on Lin Zuhan’s comments on relations between the Guomindang the Chinese Commuinist Party, the situation in Chongqing, and recent developments in Xinjiang.

  • OCTOBER 16, 1944

    Information Letter from Yasnovsky to Cdes. Petrov and Plyshevsky

    Yasnovsky reports on developments in Xinjiang since the arrival of a new governor, Wu Zhongxin.

  • MAY 17, 1945

    Special Report from General-Major Yegnarov to USSR People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs, General Commissar of State Security, Cde. L.P. Beria

    General Yegnarov reports on the Ili rebel army’s capture of 220 Chinese troops and their cache of weapons in Torgustay and a subsequent rebel seizure of Chinese weapons in Takiantsan.

  • MAY 22, 1945

    Letter from Alihan Tore to Commander-in-Chief Marshal Stalin

    Shakirjan praises Stalin and the Soviet Union, emphasizing that the Ili rebels’ victory over the Chinese government is contingent on the continued receipt of Soviet aid.

  • APRIL 29, 1945

    Report from L. Beria and A. Vyshinsky to Cde. I.V. Stalin

    Beria and Vyshinsky summarize the prevailing conditions in the Ili District of Xinjiang, describing the equipment and foodstuffs seized by the rebels, the extent of Chinese army losses, and the provisional government headed by Alihan Tore Shakirjan. Urging Stalin to support the Ili Muslims’ liberation movement, they offer suggestions for future actions in support of the rebel army.

  • MAY, 1945

    Continuation of the Report of the Xinjiang GMD Committee to the 6th GMD Congress: A Description of the Work Being Done

    The Xinjiang Committee of the Guomindang offers a report on political, economic, military, and social developments in Xinjiang.

  • MAY 11, 1945

    Letter from L. Beria to Cde. I.V. Stalin

    Molotov reports that he is sending Stalin a letter from Alihan Tore Shakirjan, the Chairman of the Provisional Government of East Turkestan.

  • MAY 28, 1945

    Report concerning the Work of the Xinjiang Provincial Party Comittee from January 1943 through March 1945

    A report on the Xinjiang Provincial Party Committee, from its founding in 1943 through early 1945.

  • JUNE 02, 1945

    Letter from L. Beria to Cde. I.V. Stalin of the State Defense Committee and Cde. V.M. Molotov of the Council of People’s Commissars

    Beria describes a meeting between NKVD Lt. Col. Prokopyuk and Shakirjan at which Shakirjan suggested renewing active rebel operations, emphasizing that the lack of combat is beginning to demoralize the Muslim population.

  • JUNE 22, 1945

    Exceprt on Xinjiang from Minutes No. 46 of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The CPSU Central Committee announces various measures to support the rebels in Ili, Xinjiang, and the East Turkestan Republic (ETR).

  • JULY, 1945

    Telegram from Cde. Yegnarov for Cde. Beria

    Cde. Yegnarov reports on his meeting with “Sadyk,” noting his persistent requests to begin military operations against the Chinese and for “Sadyk” to lead the operation against the Chinese in the South of Xinjiang. Yegnarov also describes military maneuvers in the Ili District and requests permission to transfer Red Army detachments in order to liberate the Tarbaghatai District.

  • JULY 03, 1945

    Report from L. Beria to I.V. Stalin of the State Defense Committee and V.M. Molotov of the Council of People’s Commissars

    Beria reports on a Chinese offensive against the Dungan rebel battalion in the Ili District of Xinjiang, noting the Chinese and rebel losses.

  • JULY 09, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T. V. Soong and Stalin

    Dr. Soong reports Chiang Kai-Shek’s response to the stalemate on the question of Outer Mongolia to Stalin and Molotov. Chiang insists on preserving the territorial integrity of China vis a vis Outer Mongolia and Manchuria, and that China’s sovereignty in Manchuria should be reinforced by Chinese administration of Port Arthur and Dairen. Stalin asks to think over his decision before responding to Chiang.

  • JULY 11, 1945

    Telegram from L. Beria to the Cde. Stalin of the State Defense Committee and Cde. Molotov of the Council of People’s Commissars

    Beria reports that, in June 1945, Chinese aircraft conducted reconnaissance and bombed Ili rebel positions in the region of Yun-Dzhikho.

  • JULY 13, 1945

    Report from Cde. Yegnarov to Cde. L.P. Beria

    Yegnarov notes that he is sending Stalin and Molotov a copy of a report of Cde. Yegnarov describing his conversation with “Sadyk.”

  • JULY 17, 1945

    Telegram from Cde. Yegnarov for Cde. Beria

    Yegnarov reports on a rebel battle against Chinese forces in Manas and Chinese troop movements in the Barlik Range, announcing the troop movements he ordered in light of these developments.

  • JULY 18, 1945

    Coded Message from Cde. Sergey to Cdes. Pavel and Petrov

    Cde. Sergey reports on a battle in Yamatu between Chinese troops and a rebel detachment from Tarbagatai [Tacheng] District and advises the Red Army to send a detachment led by Sufy Akhum Surbayev to the region of Bay-Aksu [Akesu] to conduct partisan operations.

  • AUGUST, 1945

    Telegram from Acting Chief of the USSR NKVD Troops Stakhanov to Cde. Beria

    Stakhanov reports on the internment of approximately 1100 Chinese citizens in the Arkarly Mountains following the rebels’ occupation of the city of Dorbiljin.

  • AUGUST 07, 1945

    Report for Cde. I.V. Stalin and Cde. Molotov

    Stakhanov reports on developments in Xinjiang and the operations of the rebels of the Ili District from the end of July to the first week of August 1945, focusing on the rebels’ seizure of Mopan, Dorbiljin, and Chuguchak; the detention of approximately 1000 Chinese citizens in Chuguchak; and an uprising by the Manas rebels.

  • AUGUST 23, 1945

    Report from Cde. Yegnarov to Cde. Beria

    Yegnarov reports on recent military developments in the Ili District, describing Chinese and Soviet troop movements and a failed attempt (led by Firsov) to seize a fortress.

  • AUGUST 27, 1945

    Report from Cde. Yegnarov to Cde. Beria

    Yegnarov reports on several successful Red Army military operations in the Ili District at the end of August, including Firsov’s seizure of Chinese supply trucks and the forced retreat of a Chinese brigade by Leskin’s cavalry brigade. He also notes a raid on Kobuk by Chinese aircraft, which killed four Soviet soldiers.

  • SEPTEMBER 05, 1945

    Report from L. Beria to Cde. I.V. Stalin, V.M. Molotov, and Cde. G.M. Malenkov

    Beria reports on the progress of the rebel movement in Xinjiang at the end of August, including information on the locations of the rebels’ active operations, their armed forces, Chinese prisoners of war, and recent rebel casualties. He also describes the Chinese Armed Forces’ likely responses to recent rebel advances in the Ili District.

  • SEPTEMBER 15, 1945

    The Situation in Xinjiang

    The Central Committee of the CPSU reports that the rebels in the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), or northern Xinjiang, have requested that the Soviet Union mediate between the Chinese Nationalist Government and the ETR.

  • DECEMBER 03, 1945

    Telegram from Cde. Yegnarov and Cde. Langvang to Cde. Beria

    Yegnarov forwards to Stalin a letter from Alihan Tore Shakirjan, in which he describes Chinese oppression of the people in Eastern Turkestan and requests Soviet assistance with their “revolutionary struggle.”

  • JUNE 26, 1946

    Letter from Cde. M. Suslov to Cde. A.A. Zhdanov

    Cde. Suslov offers suggestions for Soviet policy toward the rebellion in northern Xinjiang and the East Turkestan Republic (ETR).

  • FEBRUARY 24, 1947

    Excerpt on Xinjiang from Minutes No. 57 of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The CPSU Central Committee announces measures “directed against” Ospan Batyr (Osman Batur).

  • JULY 12, 1947

    Letter from Ahmetjan Qasimi and Rahim Jan Sabri to Mr. Savel’yev, Consul General of the USSR in Urumqi

    Ahmetjan Qasimi and a colleague asks for Stalin’s and the Soviet Union’s support in protecting the interests of Muslims in Xinjiang.

  • AUGUST 19, 1947

    Letter from T. Skvortsov to Cde. Baranov

    Cde. T. Skvortsov forwards letters from Zhang Zhizong and Ahmetjan Qasimi concerning the situation in Xinjiang.

  • AUGUST 19, 1947

    Letter from Zhang Zhizhong to Mr. Savel’yev, Consul General of the USSR in Urumqi

    Zhang Zhizhong, the leading Guomindang official in Xinjiang, expresses his hope that China and the Soviet Union can cooperate in Xinjiang in maintaining Chinese sovereignty over the entire province.

  • SEPTEMBER 10, 1947

    Telegram from Cde. Fedotov to Cde. V.M. Molotov

    Cde. Fedotov suggests that General-Major Vladimir Stepanovich Yegnarov be dispatched to Xinjiang to led support to the rebels associated with the East Turkestan Republic (ETR).

  • SEPTEMBER 10, 1947

    Proposals of the Economic Research Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers in connection with the Situation in Xinjiang

    The Soviet Council of Ministers offers four proposals to support the rebels in the East Turkestan Republic (ETR) and prevent the Chinese Guomindang from reclaiming territory in northern Xinjiang.

  • 1948

    Appeal to the Peoples of Xinjiang

    The Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang issues a twelve point list of demands for political and social change.

  • APRIL 24, 1948

    Excerpt on Xinjiang from Minutes No. 63 of the VKP(b) CC Politburo Meetings

    The Central Committee of the CPSU announces measures to increase Soviet support of the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), a rebellion in northern Xinjiang.

  • FEBRUARY 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas and Zhou Enlai discuss Muslims in China, Chinese policy in inner Mongolia, the Guomindang navy, Guomindang forces, characteristics of Guomindang leaders, PLA arms, PLA military requests, PLA intelligence, and the organization of the war ministry. (Evening)

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the independence of Mongolia, the independence movement in Xinjiang, the construction of a railroad in Xinjiang, CCP contacts with the VKP(b), the candidate for Chinese ambassador to the USSR, aid from the USSR to China, CCP negotiations with the Guomindang, the preparatory commisssion for convening the PCM, the character of future rule in China, Chinese treaties with foreign powers, and the Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • FEBRUARY 06, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss Outer Mongolia, the Sino-Soviet treaty, the situation of the national minorities in China, the economic policy of the CCP, the structure of state power, the head of the Chinese government, the “new situation” and the cadres, the Soviet loan to China, the CCP CC plans for February-March, and the youth movement.

MAKING OF THE SINO-SOVIET ALLIANCE, 1945-1950

MAKING OF THE SINO-SOVIET ALLIANCE, 1945-1950

This is a collection of primary source documents focusing on the difficult road to the establishment of the alliance between the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union.

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  • JUNE 15, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, writing under the pseudonym “Fyodor Kuznetsov,” who was Stalin’s Chief of the GRU, tells “Terebin,” actually Soviet doctor and operative in Yan’an Andrei Orlov, to arrange a secret meeting in Moscow with Mao Zedong.

  • JULY 01, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, using the name of Chief of the GRU, Fyodor Kuznetsov, tells Terebin, actually Soviet operative in Yan’an Andrei Orlov, to delay Mao’s secret visit to Moscow.

  • DECEMBER 16, 1947

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, using the name of Fyodor Kuznetsov, Chief of the GRU, officially invites Mao Zedong to Moscow. Stalin does so through Andrei Orlov, acting under the name “Terebin.”

  • DECEMBER 17, 1947

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) returns Kuznetsov’s (Stalin) cable concerning a visit to Moscow by Mao. Terebin gives Mao’s response to the invitation and tells of a discussion that took place between himself and Mao after Stalin’s message was relayed.

  • 1948

    Soviet Telegram, Regarding Operation Plan from the Chief of Staff of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Zhu De

    Telegram noting that a certain plan by General Zhu De for October has been received. Estimates the military support that it will require. Brian Murray questions the validity of the document in CWIHP Working Paper No. 12, where the document is published.

  • APRIL 20, 1948

    Cable, Stalin [Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin responds to two letters from Mao, via Terebin (Andrei Orlov). In the cable, Stalin gives advice to Mao on what to do with opposing parties once the Chinese revolution is complete and whether or not Mao should include the liberal bourgeosie in China’s central government.

  • APRIL 22, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin, Plans for Mao’s Visit to Moscow

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) tells Stalin of Mao’s plans for arriving in Moscow and asks whether he, Terebin, should join Mao on the journey.

  • APRIL 26, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao tells Filippov (Stalin) about the move of the Central Committee to a more rural area in China. Mao also discusses his plans for his trip to Moscow.

  • APRIL 29, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong

    Stalin agrees with the plans Mao discusses in a previous cable.

  • MAY 10, 1948

    Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Mao Zedong

    Filippov (Stalin) suggests that, because of possible dangers, Mao delay his trip to Moscow even further.

  • MAY 10, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao says that his poor health requires him to delay his trip further.

  • MAY 22, 1948

    Soviet Military Order from Foreign Operations Section Chief to Commander of East-Asian Operational Section Managarov

    Soviet military message ordering its recipient to ascertain the needs of the People’s Liberation Army, so that the Soviet Union can meet them. The message also contains affirmations of Soviet support for the Communist forces in China, and promises of massive aid in the future.

  • JUNE 20, 1948

    Memorandum of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador to China, N. V. Roshchin with the President of the Chinese Republic Jiang Jieshi [Chiang Kai-shek] on 2 June 1948

    Report from Soviet Ambassador to China Roshchin on a conversation he had with Jiang Jieshi. The two discuss Japan; Jieshi remains vague on his opinions of the handling of the Japanese situation, but admits that the American approach has some flaws. Roshchin concludes that the Chinese should be watched with respect to Japan.

  • JULY 04, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao states to Stalin that his health is no longer a problem and that he, Mao, may now go to Moscow. Mao discusses the best means for doing so.

  • JULY 06, 1948

    Soviet Military Order from Operations Chief, Section Chief Lieutenant General Filyashev/Filyashkii to Commander of East-Asian Operational Section General Lieutenant Managarov

    Soviet military order informing the Chief of East-Asian Operational Section General Lieutenant Managarov of the arrival of a Lieutenant General Fedenko, who will take over operational command. It orders Managarov to continue to attend to supply line matters, and attend to the needs of the People’s Liberation Army eagerly.

  • JULY 14, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin asks Mao, through Terebin (Andrei Orlov), to visit Moscow in November so Mao will be able to see all of the important Soviet leaders.

  • JULY 14, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin

    Terebin discusses briefly Mao’s reaction to Stalin’s telegram, dated July 14, 1948, and gives Mao’s response.

  • JULY 17, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) gives Kuznetsov (Stalin) his, Terebin’s, interpretation of Mao’s reaction to Stalin’s cable asking that Mao’s visit be delayed several months.

  • JULY 28, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin (Andrei Orlov) discusses Mao’s plans for conversation when the trip to Moscow is made. Terebin lists seven questions of Mao’s that Mao will bring up upon arriving in the USSR.

  • SEPTEMBER 28, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao agrees to delay his visit to the USSR until November, but asks that, Stalin and the Cenral Committee give advice about several questions Mao had stated previously.

  • OCTOBER 17, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin tells Mao, through Terebin (Andrei Orlov), that he, Stalin, received Mao’s letter and that the Soviet leaders would answer Mao’s questions upon his arrival in Moscow.

  • OCTOBER 17, 1948

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin

    Mao asks, through Terebin, whether or not he, Mao, will be picked up by a Soviet plane when he heads to Moscow. Terebin recounts the detailed planning that Mao has done for the trip.

  • OCTOBER 21, 1948

    Cable, Stalin [via Kuznetsov] to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Kuznetsov (Stalin) tells Terebin (Andrei Orlov) that two planes will pick up Mao at an undetermined time to take him to Moscow.

  • NOVEMBER 21, 1948

    Cable, Mao to Stalin

    Mao asks to delay his trip to Moscow until December.

  • NOVEMBER 22, 1948

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong

    Stalin agrees that Mao should postpone his visit to Moscow for a month.

  • DECEMBER 30, 1948

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao details to Stalin the recent military operations the Communists have undertaken against the Guomindang army. The first is in the area of Suizhou, Huaiying, and the Huaihe River. The second is in Du Yuming. Mao states that once these operations are complete, he will depart for Moscow. Mao discusses future tactics against the Guomindang.

  • JANUARY 06, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Terebin]

    Stalin, through Terebin (Andrei Orlov), acknowledges that creating a democratic coalition government in China will take a significant amount of time. Stalin states, however, that it would be best if the final stages of the process take place sooner than the summer, the time Mao planned to have the government established.

  • JANUARY 08, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin

    Mao thanks Stalin for sending over Ivan Kovalev to help with economic struggles in China. Mao asks for materials with which China may build railroads.

  • JANUARY 09, 1949

    Cable, Mao to Stalin

    Mao announces that he is ready to visit Moscow.

  • JANUARY 10, 1949

    Cable, Mao to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao responds to Stalin’s telegram from 6 January 1949. Mao states that any government the GMD may create will be of no influence, that the GMD army is diminished, and that soon the People’s Liberation Army will be able to march south and capture several important provinces.

  • JANUARY 10, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Stalin informs Mao that they received a note from the Chinese Nationalist government in Nanjing proposing that the Soviet government act as a mediator between the Nanjing government and the Chinese Communist Party in the termination of the ongoing civil war.

  • JANUARY 11, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Stalin further explains his strategy in dealing with the peace proposal received from the Chinese Nationalist Government in Nanjing.

  • JANUARY 13, 1949

    Cable, Terebin to Stalin [via Kuznetsov]

    Terebin states that Mao is firmly against mediation with the GMD and the USSR taking part in mediation talks with the GMD. Terebin states that if Mao cannot make it to Moscow by the end of January, he will most likely not go at all.

  • JANUARY 13, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Stalin, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Mao responds to Stalin’s telegrams regarding the Soviet response to the proposal for negotiations from the Chinese Nationalist government in Nanjing.

  • JANUARY 14, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

    Stalin responds to Mao’s 11 January telegram rejecting the peace proposal from the Chinese Nationalist Goverment in Nanjing.

  • JANUARY 15, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong, Nanjing Peace Proposal

  • JANUARY 17, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao states that he must delay his visit to Moscow once again. He gives an alternative, which is to have a member of the Politburo come to visit China instead.

  • JANUARY 18, 1949

    The Official Statement on the Soviet Government’s Answer to the Note by the Nanjing Government (Izyestia)

    The Soviet government rejects the proposal from the Chinese Nationalist Government in Nanjing for the Soviet Union to act as mediator in peace negotiations with the Chinese Communist Party.

  • JANUARY 30, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Mao discusses the military situation in China, which he states is heavily in the favor of the CCP. Mao discusses the plans for finishing off the Guomindang forces, which are to be delayed a couple months. Mao discusses China’s standing compared to Russia’s. Mao discusses his own standing among the Soviet leaders.

  • JANUARY 31, 1949

    Notes by Anastas Mikoyan ahead of Meetings with Mao Zedong

    Notes taken by Minister of Foreign Trade Anastas Mikoyan during a meeting with Mao Zedong in Beijing. They discuss relations with the United States and other Western powers and the nationalization of foreign-owned factories in China. Mikoyan also gave advice on developing the new Communist government in China. Noteably, Mikoyan wrote that “the path of the regime of the people’s democracies, or the path of the Russian Soviet revolution, is not quite appropriate for China. China has its own path of development.”

  • JANUARY 31, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Mao discusses the formation of a coalition government and when best to form the government. Mao discusses his strategies against Bai Chongxi and the strength of the CCP forces. Mao also discusses the representative office of the VKP(b) CC with the CCP CC, running the military districts, Guomindang naval forces, the conditions of workers, the cadres, professional unions, working youth and women, talks with the Guomindang government, foreign trade, and the foreign policy of the CCP.

  • MARCH, 1949

    List of Products Brought Back

    Anastas Mikoyan’s list of products he brought back to the Soviet Union following his trip to Xibaipo, China, in January-February 1949.

  • FEBRUARY, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Cable from Stalin to Mikoyan giving answers to questions raised by Mao Zedong. Stalin advises not to rush in creating a government in China before comprehensively “clearing the liberated area from hostile elements.” Stalin explains that the USSR sent an agent to Canton for intelligence-gathering, and says that the Americans and English are sending ambassadors to CCP areas to function as spies.

  • FEBRUARY 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas and Zhou Enlai discuss Muslims in China, Chinese policy in inner Mongolia, the Guomindang navy, Guomindang forces, characteristics of Guomindang leaders, PLA arms, PLA military requests, PLA intelligence, and the organization of the war ministry. (Evening)

  • FEBRUARY 01, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai

    Anastas Mikoyan and Zhou Enlai discuss Chinese Communist Party contacts with the US, recognition of the coalition government, and the Chinese attitude toward foreign property.

  • FEBRUARY 03, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, asking Mikoyan to bring Mao’s attention to the issue of Nanjing’ists taking China’s state-owned gold south from evacuated cities and areas in China. Stalin recommends that Mao make the return of this gold a condition for holding talks with the Nanjing’ists.

  • FEBRUARY 03, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Cable from Stalin to Mikoyan, sent with the intent to be passed on to Mao Zedong. Stalin expresses pleasure with the Chinese control of China’s peasantry and students, but expresses disappointment that the CCP does not control the majority of the working class. Stalin advises that China turn its big cities into bases for communism, and then gives more specific advice for gaining a majority among the working class. Stalin then responds to Mao’s request for weapons, explaining that the USSR doesn’t have anti-tank and anti-aircraft weapons of foreign make, but can send Russian-made weapons.

  • FEBRUARY 03, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong converse about the mediation talks between the CCP and the Guomindang, Yugoslavia, coordination between the communist parties of the Asian countries, and the history of the CCP.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Anastas Mikoyan to Joseph Stalin

    Cable from Mikoyan to Stalin, saying that Mao and the members of the Chinese Politburo were pleased with the content of previous telegrams sent by Stalin.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, responding to Mikoyan’s report that an American named Rittenberg is stationed with the Chinese Communist party as a spy. Stalin recommends an arrest of Rittenberg immediately, so as “to expsoe the network of American agents” operating in China. Stalin then notes that another American, writer Anna-Louise Strong, is also an American spy.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Joseph Stalin to Anastas Mikoyan

    Stalin cable to Mikoyan, asking Mikoyan to recount a four-point cable sent earlier to Mao Zedong. Stalin has not heard an answer, and demands an immediate one.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Cable, Anastas Mikoyan to Joseph Stalin

    Cable sent from Mikoyan to Stalin, summarizing a discussion between Mikoyan and Mao. In that conversation, Mikoyan tells Mao that once the USSR opposed foreign mediation between the Guomindang and CCP, England, America and France changed their positions from supporting mediation to refuting mediation. Mikoyan then draws to Stalin’s attention that Zhou Enlai noticed permanent representatives of Americans, including “spies, and journalists,” among the Chinese Communist Party.

  • FEBRUARY 04, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the independence of Mongolia, the independence movement in Xinjiang, the construction of a railroad in Xinjiang, CCP contacts with the VKP(b), the candidate for Chinese ambassador to the USSR, aid from the USSR to China, CCP negotiations with the Guomindang, the preparatory commisssion for convening the PCM, the character of future rule in China, Chinese treaties with foreign powers, and the Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • FEBRUARY 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the situation within the CCP, the workers’ question, the military situation an the CCP’s tasks, and Rittenberg and Ma Haide. (Evening)

  • FEBRUARY 05, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss the role of foreign capital in China, Chinese intelligentsia, the role of criticism and self-criticism in the CCP, CCP tasks in the army, the level of China’s industrial development, the Chinese attitude toward foreign property, and the road and character of the Chinese revolution. (Day)

  • FEBRUARY 06, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong

    Anastas Mikoyan and Mao Zedong discuss Outer Mongolia, the Sino-Soviet treaty, the situation of the national minorities in China, the economic policy of the CCP, the structure of state power, the head of the Chinese government, the “new situation” and the cadres, the Soviet loan to China, the CCP CC plans for February-March, and the youth movement.

  • APRIL 26, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Kovalev

    Stalin gives advice to Mao (via Kovalev) on how to treat the Chinese bourgeoisie.

  • MAY 26, 1949

    Cable, Stalin to Mao Zedong [via Kovalev]

    Stalin gives to Mao (via Kovalev) his, Stalin’s, stance on the economic situation in China, and how the Chinese are handling it (the creation of an administrative economic center in China). Stalin also discusses Sino-Soviet relations, and the state of the PLA and how best to use PLA forces.

  • JUNE 14, 1949

    Cable, Mao Zedong [via Kovalev] to Stalin

    Mao (via Kovalev) responds to Stalin’s earlier cable and asks advice on several questions, including: the creation of a government in China, military tactics, the supplying of troops, the state of the civil war, and how to show the friendship between the USSR and China to other countries.

  • JUNE 18, 1949

    Cable, Filippov [Stalin] to Mao Zedong [via Kovalev]

    Stalin discusses the creation of a government in China, Chinese military plans, and the acquisition of oil in China.

  • JUNE 27, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Stalin and CCP Delegation

    Stalin and the CCP delegation discuss the Soviet loan to China, the specialist the Soviets are to send to China, the occupation of Xinjiang, and the Chinese fleet.

  • JULY 06, 1949

    Report, Kovalev to Stalin

    Kovalev relays several requests made by Liu Shaoqi, Gao Gang, and Wang Jiaxiang. The requests include advice on running a communist government, that Soviet professors be sent to China, advice on how to manage Manchuria, and if China could receive a Czechoslovak trade delegation.

  • JULY 18, 1949

    Cable, Liu Shaoqi to Mao Zedong

    A committee to write up a preliminary draft for a loan from the USSR to China is created. Stalin meets with a delegation of the CCP and answers several of their questions, including: the CCP’s policy towards the Chinese national bourgeoisie, the matter of people’s democratic dictatorship, Chinese foreign policy issues, Sino-Soviet relations, Xinjiang, Dalian, a Chinese University in Moscow, a railway from outer Mongolia to Zhangjiakou, and a naval school. Stalin and the CCP delegation also discussed the possibility of a war breaking out between the USSR and the US.

  • JULY 27, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation between Liu Shaoqi and Stalin

    Liu Shaoqi and Stalin (among others) discuss the state of the Chinese civil war

  • NOVEMBER 07, 1949

    Memorandum of Conversation of Soviet Ambassador Roshchin with Deputy Chairman Zhu De on 24 October 1949

    Conversation between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Commander of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Zhu De. Zhu De notes that PLA progress through Southern China is meeting little resistance, although it is slowed by the lack of available gasoline. De puts forth his opinion that Chinese success in Xinjiang will depend on mechanized agricultural aid from the Soviets.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin, Memorandum of Conversation with Prime Minister Zhou Enlai on 15 November 1949

    Conversation between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Chinese Premier Enlai. Zhou Enlai puts forth some future military plans of the PLA. Specifically, the plans to enter Tibet following liberation in Xinjiang and Sichuan, and to attack Hainan are discussed. He adds that the losses incurred in the Battle of Shantou will inform the eventual attack on Formosa.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin, Memorandum of Conversation with Chairman Mao Zedong on 20 October 1949

    Record of a dinner between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Mao Zedong. Roshchin notes that the mood of dinner is very friendly, with each man toasting the other and the other’s country. The two also discuss China’s desire to establish diplomatic relations with Albania.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin, Memorandum of Conversation with Prime Minister Zhou Enlai on 10 November 1949

    Conversation between Soviet Ambassador Roshchin and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Zhou Enlai speaks on behalf of Mao Zedong, expressing the Chairman’s desire to make a visit to Moscow.

  • DECEMBER 01, 1949

    From the Diary of N.V. Roshchin: Memorandum of Conversation with Chairman Mao Zedong on 16 October 1949

    Soviet Ambassador to China Roshchin records his conversation with Chairman Mao Zedong where he congratulates Mao on the successes of the People’s Liberation Army. Mao assures Roshchin that China will not take up diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia, and that it will officially recognize the GDR once the Soviet Union does.

  • DECEMBER 16, 1949

    Record of Conversation between I.V. Stalin and Chairman of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China Mao Zedong on 16 December 1949

    First meeting between Mao and Stalin. The two discuss war and peace, as well as the question of the new treaty between China and the USSR. Stalin voices himself against signing a new treaty, citing the Yalta agreement. Mao promises to reconsider his position. Mao says he is in favor of keeping Soviet troops in Port Arthur. Stalin promises not to “run away” from China. Mao requests a credit of 300 million dollars, as well as the Soviet aid in liberating Taiwan. Stalin warns Mao not to give the Americans a pretext to intervene in China. Mao says that several countries are interested in establishing diplomatic relations with China but that China should wait before doing so. Stalin agrees with this strategy.

  • DECEMBER 20, 1949

    Kovalev Report to Stalin on a Conversation with Mao

    Kovalev reported to Stalin on his converation with Mao Zedong. He said Mao intended to suggest two options for Stalin’s consideration. The first one is to discuss Soviet-China treaty and other aggrements and then sign them. The second option is to discuss wiouthout formalizing these into agreeements.

  • DECEMBER 22, 1949

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to the Central Committee of the CCP

    Mao Zedong offers instructions on the impending trade agreement with the Soviet Union.

  • DECEMBER 24, 1949

    Report, Kovalev to Stalin

    Kovalev discusses seceral questions on the policy and pratice of the CCP CC. Topics include: data on the economic situation in the country, the Chinese working class, the Chinese peasantry and the land reform, the CCP, the Chinese press, the Chinese state apparatus, the Chinese army, the Chinese intelligentsia, the Chinese attitude toward the national bourgeoisie, the Chinese attitude toward foreign capital, the class struggle in China, and Chinese foreign policy.

  • JANUARY 02, 1950

    Cable, Mao Zedong to the Central Committee of the CCP

    Mao Zedong informs the Central Committee of “an important breakthrough” in his talks with Stalin, and asks that Zhou Enlai immediately come to Moscow to conclude a new Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • JANUARY 05, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to CCP Central Committee

    Mao Zedong urges the Central Committee to ensure the secrecy of the Sino-Soviet negotiations for a new treaty.

  • JANUARY 07, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to Zhou Enlai and CCP CC

    Mao Zedong updates Zhou Enlai on the Sino-Soviet negotiations and Sino-Soviet cooperation at the United Nations.

  • JANUARY 13, 1950

    Cable, Mao Zedong to Liu Shaoqi

    Mao Zedong gives instructions on Sino-Soviet military cooperation and makes personnel appointments to the Chinese armed forces.

  • JANUARY 22, 1950

    Record of Talks between I.V. Stalin and Chairman of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China Mao Zedong

    Conversation between Stalin and Mao concerning a proposed treaty of friendship and alliance between the USSR and China. Discussion includes: the prospects of future Japanese aggression, the Chinese-Eastern Railway (Mao and Stalin disagree on who should run its administration), the Port Arthur agreements (including the question of the port of Dalny), and economic cooperation. The economic cooperation focuses on a Soviet credit program for economic development in China, as well as the question of arms shipments to China. There is also discussion of Tibet.

  • JANUARY 25, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to Liu Shaoqi

    Mao reports that they have completed a draft of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance, as well as an agreement on Lushun, Dalian, and the Chinese Chanchun Railway.

  • JANUARY 31, 1950

    Memorandum of Conversation, Charge d’Affaires of the Soviet Embassy with Chinese Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai on 9 December 1949

    Description of a discussion between the Soviet Charge d’Affaires in the PRC and Zhou Enlai, covering Mao Zedong’s trip to Moscow and recognition of the PRC by England, Burma, and India.

    *****

     

Xitayning BDT Insan Heqliri Méxanizmigha Chirmaq Sélishi Qattiq Eyiblendi

Xitay prézidénti shi jinping birleshken döletler teshkilatida nutuq sözlewatqan körünüshi. 2017-Yili 18-Yanwar, jenwe.

Xitay prézidénti shi jinping birleshken döletler teshkilatida nutuq sözlewatqan körünüshi. 2017-Yili 18-Yanwar, jenwe.

 hrw.org

«Insan heqlirini közitish teshkilati» 5-Séntebir élan qilghan zor hejimlik doklatta xitay hökümitining birleshken döletler teshkilati(b d t ) ning insan heqlirige mensup xizmet méxanizmigha qopalliq bilen ariliship, b d t ning normal xizmitini aqsitip qoyuwatqanliqi, buning bilen bir qisim öktichi pikirdikilerning, jümlidin uyghur siyasiy paaliyetchi dolqun eysaning bu seweblik köp dishwarchiliqqa uchrighanliqi tepsiliy bayan qilinghan. Alaqidar shexsler bu heqte pikir qilip «xitayning bu qilmishi emeliyette b d t ning munasiwetlik nizamlirigha xilapliq qilghanliq» dep körsetti.

B d t ning daimliq xizmetlirining biri herqachan insan heqliri saheside bolup kéliwatqan bolup, buningda köpligen ijabiy netijilerning wujudqa kéliwatqanliqi melum. Shuning bilen birge bu jehettiki xizmetlerge tosqun boluwatqan bezi amillarmu mewjut. Mushu amillarning biri bir qisim diktatora hakimiyetlerdin kéliwatqan bolup, xitay hökümitining yéqinqi yillardin buyan bu sahede selbiy ülge bolup kéliwatqanliqi xelqara jamaetning diqqitini qozghap kelmekte. Bu ehwal insan heqliri sahesi boyiche xelqaradiki eng chong teshkilat bolghan «insan heqlirini közitish teshkilati» tünügün élan qilghan mexsus témidiki doklatta yene bir qétim öz ipadisini tapti.

5-Séntebir küni shiwétsariyening jenwe shehiride «xelqara teshebbusning bedelliri: xitayning b d t ijrasidiki insan heqliri xizmitige chirmaq sélishi» dep mawzu qoyulghan zor hejimlik doklatni élan qilish yighini ötküzüldi. Yighinning échilish murasimida «insan heqlirini közitish teshkilati» ning ijraiye reisi kénnés ros söz qilip, doklatning teyyarlinishigha munasiwetlik ehwallar hemde uningdiki alaqidar mezmunlar heqqide melumatlar berdi.

U sözining axirida, xitay hökümitining xitaydiki mewjut ijtimaiy mesililer heqqide pikir qiliwatqan muhajirettiki tenqidchilerni we paaliyetchilerni jimiqturush meqsitide izchil halda b d t ning insan heqliri sahesidiki xizmetlirige «aktipliq» bilen qatnishiwatqanliqini tekitlidi.

Mezkur doklatta muhajirettiki musteqil paaliyetchiler hemde insan heqliri pidakarlirining herqachan xitay hökümitining chetellerge sozulghan qollirining tesiride herxil teqibge we parakendichilikke uchrap kelgenliki alahide eskertilgen. Shuningdek xitay hökümiti ewetken xizmetchilerning b d t gha mensup ishxana binalirida b d t ning alaqidar qaidilirige xilap halda yighingha kelgen öktichi zatlarni resimge yaki singha alghanliqi, shuningdek bir qisim öktichilerning xitay hökümitidin kéliwatqan bésimlar tüpeylidin erkin halda b d t yighinlirigha qatnishishqa muweppeq bolalmighanliqi bayan qilinghan. Kénnés ros bu heqtiki mesililer toghriliq söz qilip, uyghur siyasiy paaliyetchi, dunya uyghur qurultiyining bash katipi dolqun eysaning yéqinqi kechürmishlirining buninggha eng yaxshi misal bolidighanliqini éytidu. U bu heqte mundaq deydu:

«Bundaq ishlar yalghuz jenwedila körülgini yoq. Yene nyoyork shehiride uyghur insan heqliri paaliyetchisi dolqun eysa axbarat sahesige xitaydiki insan heqliri mesililiri boyiche melumat bérishke toluq teyyarlanghan idi. U özi teklip qilinghan yighin zalida turghanda ushtumtut b d t ning bixeterlik xadimliri uning aldigha kélip uni binaning sirtigha ‹echiqip qoyghan›. Ular bu heqte héchqandaq chüshenchimu bermigen. Shübhisizki xitay hökümiti bu yerde qandaqtur bir shumluqni otturigha chiqarmaqta idi. Shuning bilen bir insan heqliri paaliyetchisi mushu teriqide b d t ning nyo yorktiki bash shtabidin qoghlap chiqirildi. Shuning bilen biz b d t din mushu xildiki hadisiler heqqide zadi néme ishlarning boluwatqanliqi heqqide sorap körmekchi bolduq. Epsuski bizning alghan jawabimiz kishini zadila qanaetlendürelmeydu. B d t ning bash katipi antonyo guttérés bolsa bu heqtiki soalimizgha jawaben bundaq ishlarning bundin kéyin emdi qayta sadir bolmaydighanliqini éytti, emma xitayning namini tilgha almidi. Lékin biz soalimizda xitayni alahide tekitligen hemde mushu mesile toghriliq sorighan iduq.»

Mezkur doklat b d t ning insan heqliri xizmitige xitayning qandaq chirmaq séliwatqanliqi heqqide biwasite chüshenchige hemde kechürmishke ige kishiler bilen bolghan söhbet xatirisi asasida yézilghan bolup, bularning ichide b d t ning xizmetchiliri, chetel diplomatliri hemde puqrawi jemiyetning wekilliri bar. Mezkur doklatni teyyarlashqa biwasite qatnashqan xadimlardin «insan heqlirini közitish teshkilati» ning xitay ishlirigha mesul mudiri sofi richardson xanim ziyaritimizni qobul qilip, nöwette mushundaq bir doklatni teyyarlashning bekmu zörür boluwatqanliqini tekitlidi. U bu heqte mundaq dédi:

«Xitay hazir küchiyip kétiwatqanliqi üchün, shuningdek xitay b d t xewpsizlik kéngishining besh daimiy ezasining biri bolghanliqi üchün bu doklatning élan qilinishi muhim ehmiyetke ége. Shuning bilen bir waqitta xitay hökümitining b d t ning insan heqliri xizmiti méxanizmigha buzghunchiliq qilish qilmishi hazir muhim mesililerdin boluwatidu. Biz b d t jezmen xitayning bu qilmishlirigha qarita kökrek kérip otturigha chiqishi lazim, dep qariduq. Chünki xewiringiz bolghinidek xitayning ichki qismida xitay hökümiti bu méxanizmlarning normal ishlishige tosqunluq qilidighan köpligen tosuqlarni peyda qilghanliqi üchün xelqning u jayda qandaq müshkülatta yashawatqanliqini tesewwur qilish qiyin emes. Hazir téximu yaman boluwatqini xitay hökümitining dunya miqyasida bu méxanizmining normal ishlishini ajizlashturushqa urunushliridur.»

Doklatta körsitilishiche, xitay hökümitining xadimliri her xil yollar arqiliq ashu kishilerning xitaydiki insan heqliri mesilisi boyiche b d t da paaliyet qilishigha tosqunluq qilghan hemde ulargha tehdit sélip kelgen. Bolupmu gheyriy resmiy hökümet teshkilatliri buning ziyinigha eng köp uchrighan. Doklatta bu jehettiki tipik misallar qatarida tibetlerning meniwi dahiysi dalay lama we uyghur siyasiy paaliyetchi dolqun eysa köp qétim tilgha élinghan. Sofi richardson xanim bu heqte toxtilip buning tolimu qorqunchluq bir hadise ikenlikini tekitlidi.

«Dolqun eysa ependi bu yil aprél éyida nyoyorktiki yighin zaligha kétiwatqanda ashundaq muamilige uchridi. Shu waqitta u yighin meydanida hazir bolushqa toluq hoquqluq idi. Halbuki b d t xadimlirining uninggha qilghan muamilisi shek-Shübhisizki b d t ning xizmet tertiplirige xilap. Shu qétimliq weqede b d t özining qaide-Tüzümlirige özi xilapliq qilipla qalmastin yene mushu qilmishning sadir bolushi xitay hökümitige ünümlük halda ‹biz özimizning qaidisi boyiche emes, belki sizning déginingiz boyiche ish qilimiz. Biz b d t ning qaidilirini tinchliq yolidiki musteqil paaliyetchiler üchün emes, belki xitay üchün uyan-Buyan qilalaymiz› dégen uchurni yetküzgenliktur. Halbuki bu nahayiti zor qabahettin bésharet béridu.»

Mezkur doklatta xitayning mushu xildiki parakendichilikige köp qétimlap duch kelgüchiler qatarida misalgha keltürülgen gholluq shexslerning biri, dunya uyghur qurultiyining bash katipi dolqun eysa bu heqtiki ziyaritimizni qobul qildi. U özining seper üstide bolushigha qarimay mezkur doklatni bir qur körüp chiqqanliqini, bu doklatning élan qilinishi uyghur dawasi nöwette duch kéliwatqan müshkülatlarning bir teripini tashqi dunyagha bildürüshte zor ehmiyetke ige ikenlikini tekitlidi.

Dolqun eysaning pikriche xitayning shunche zor küch serp qilish bedilige uyghur siyasiy paaliyetchilerning xelqaradiki paaliyetlirini, bolupmu b d t diki paaliyetlirini chekleshke urunushida ashu shexslerdin köre uyghur dewasining xelqaralishishidin bekrek qorqidighanliqi muhim orun tutidiken.

Mezkur doklatta yene xitay hökümitige, b d t gha we uning alaqidar komitétlirigha teklip-Tewsiyeler bérilgen. Shuningdek «insan heqlirini közitish teshkilati» xitay ishliri ishxanisining mudiri sofi richardson xanimning xitay tashqi ishlar ministiri wang yi, b d t bash katipi, bash katip ijraiye ishxanisi, b d t insan heqliri aliy komitéti qatarliqlargha yazghan ochuq xetliri hemde soalliri, shuningdek bu xetlerge qayturulghan yazma jawablar kirgüzülgen.(Eziz)